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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2019, Article ID 3012509, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3012509
Review Article

Cardiovascular Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Preventive Strategies

1Department of Cardiology, Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Timisoara 300310, Romania
2Department of Radiology, County Emergency Hospital Timisoara, Timisoara 300723, Romania
3Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi 700111, Romania
4Department of Internal Medicine, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi 700111, Romania
53rd Internal Medicine Clinic, “Sf. Spiridon” County Clinical Emergency Hospital Iasi, Iasi, Romania
6Department of Morpho-Functional Sciences I, Discipline of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi 700111, Romania
7Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology-“Sf. Spiridon” County Clinical Emergency Hospital Iasi, Iasi, Romania
8“Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi 700111, Romania

Correspondence should be addressed to Cristian-Eugen Timofte; moc.duolci@etfomit.naitsirc and Mariana Floria; moc.oohay@anairam_airolf

Received 2 September 2018; Revised 18 November 2018; Accepted 6 December 2018; Published 13 January 2019

Academic Editor: Konstantinos Triantafyllou

Copyright © 2019 Diana-Maria Bunu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to a group of chronic inflammatory diseases that targets mainly the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical presentation of IBD includes both gastrointestinal manifestations and extraintestinal manifestations (EIM). The reported cardiovascular manifestations in IBD patients include pericarditis, myocarditis, venous and arterial thromboembolism, arrhythmias, atrioventricular block, heart failure, endocarditis, valvulopathies, and Takayasu arteritis. The aim of this article is to review the available literature about the possible pathogenic mechanisms and determine preventive measures capable of reducing the incidence and severity of the cardiovascular manifestations. In IBD patients, the incidence of cardiovascular manifestations is low, but higher than that in the general population. Therefore, clinicians should pay attention to any new modification that might indicate cardiovascular involvement in IBD patients, and they should consider chronic inflammatory diseases in patients with cardiac conditions without an evident cause. Considering the role of inflammation in the development of cardiovascular manifestations, the management should include prevention of flares and maintenance of remission for as long as possible. Preventive measures should also include active screening and strict control of the cardiovascular risk factors in all IBD patients.