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HPB Surgery
Volume 2012, Article ID 641982, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/641982
Research Article

C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase 2 Promotes Liver Injury via the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition after Hemorrhage and Resuscitation

1Center for Cell Death, Injury & Regeneration, Departments of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
2Departement of Trauma Surgery, J.W. Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
3Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, MSC 140, Charleston, SC 29425, USA

Received 16 February 2012; Accepted 24 March 2012

Academic Editor: Peter Schemmer

Copyright © 2012 Christoph Czerny et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hemorrhagic shock leads to hepatic hypoperfusion and activation of mitogen-activated stress kinases (MAPK) like c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1 and 2. Our aim was to determine whether mitochondrial dysfunction leading to hepatic necrosis and apoptosis after hemorrhage/resuscitation (H/R) was dependent on JNK2. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, wildtype (WT) and JNK2 deficient (KO) mice were hemorrhaged to 30 mm Hg for 3 h and then resuscitated with shed blood plus half the volume of lactated Ringer’s solution. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), necrosis, apoptosis and oxidative stress were assessed 6 h after resuscitation. Mitochondrial polarization was assessed by intravital microscopy. After H/R, ALT in WT-mice increased from 130 U/L to 4800 U/L. In KO-mice, ALT after H/R was blunted to 1800 U/l ( ). Necrosis, caspase-3 activity and ROS were all substantially decreased in KO compared to WT mice after H/R. After sham operation, intravital microscopy revealed punctate mitochondrial staining by rhodamine 123 (Rh123), indicating normal mitochondrial polarization. At 4 h after H/R, Rh123 staining became dim and diffuse in 58% of hepatocytes, indicating depolarization and onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). By contrast, KO mice displayed less depolarization after H/R (23%, ). In conclusion, JNK2 contributes to MPT-mediated liver injury after H/R.