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Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology publishes articles related to infectious diseases in women’s health. Topics include diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, urinary tract infections, and infections in pregnancy.
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Improving Obstetric Provider Congenital Cytomegalovirus Knowledge and Practices
Background. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMV) is the most common congenital infection. Antenatal education is proven to reduce cCMV risk. Little is known about obstetric provider knowledge and practice patterns around cCMV. Objectives. To evaluate obstetric provider knowledge and practice patterns regarding cCMV at baseline and again after a brief educational intervention. Methods. Obstetric providers () at a US academic community hospital were invited to complete a survey regarding their knowledge and practice patterns around cCMV. Providers attended a brief presentation about cCMV and later were invited to repeat the same survey. Univariate statistics were calculated for baseline data, and prepost intervention comparison analyses were conducted. Results. Baseline cCMV knowledge was low at 49% ( out of a possible 36, SD 6.4), with most providers (51%) reporting never counseling pregnant patients about cCMV. Post intervention, overall cCMV knowledge increased to 80% (, SD 4.1, ); provider intention to counsel about cCMV prevention increased to 100%. Conclusions. Obstetric provider knowledge about cCMV is low, which likely impacts their antenatal counseling. Educational initiatives to increase awareness about cCMV may increase antenatal education and thereby decrease the risk of cCMV.
Chlamydia trachomatis Infection, when Treated during Pregnancy, Is Not Associated with Preterm Birth in an Urban Safety-Net Hospital
Preterm birth is a major public health problem, occurring in more than half a million births per year in the United States. A number of maternal conditions have been recognized as risk factors for preterm birth, but for the majority of cases, the etiology is not completely understood. Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in the world. However, its role in adverse pregnancy outcome in women is still debated. In order to determine if genitourinary tract infection with C. trachomatis during pregnancy was associated with preterm birth, we conducted a case-control study on women who delivered at Boston Medical Center, an urban “safety-net” hospital that serves a socioeconomically disadvantaged and racially diverse population. Women with known risk factors for preterm birth or immune suppression were excluded. Variables collected on enrolled subjects included demographics; diagnosis of C. trachomatis during or prior to pregnancy; tobacco, alcohol, and illicit substance use; gestational age; and birthweight and gender of the newborn. We also collected urine for chlamydia testing at the time of delivery and placental biopsies for nucleic acid amplification and histological studies. A total of 305 subjects were enrolled: 100 who delivered preterm and 205 who delivered full term. Among those subjects, we identified 19 cases of pregnancy-associated C. trachomatis infection: 6/100 preterm and 13/205 full term, a difference which was not statistically significant. Only two cases of untreated chlamydia infection were identified postpartum, and both occurred in women who delivered at term. We conclude that genitourinary tract infection with C. trachomatis during pregnancy, when appropriately treated, is not associated with preterm birth.
Malaria in Pregnancy in Endemic Regions of Colombia: High Frequency of Asymptomatic and Peri-Urban Infections in Pregnant Women with Malaria
Background. Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is limited information on MiP in low transmission regions as Colombia. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of MiP through active surveillance of infections by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between May 2016 and January 2017 in five municipalities (Apartadó, Turbo, El Bagre, Quibdó, and Tumaco) in Colombia. Pregnant women self-presenting at health centers for antenatal care visits, seeking medical care for suspected malaria, or delivery, were enrolled. Diagnosis of Plasmodium spp was made in peripheral and placental blood samples by microscopy and PCR. Results. A total of 787 pregnant women were enrolled; plasmodial infection was diagnosed by microscopy in 4.2% (95% CI 2.8-5.6; 33/787) or by nPCR in 5.3% (95% CI 3.8-6.9; 42/787) in peripheral blood. Most of the infections were caused by P. falciparum (78.5%), and 46% were afebrile (asymptomatic). Women in the first and second trimester of pregnancy were more likely to be infected (, ). To live in the urban/peri-urban area (, ), to have a history of malaria during last year (, ), and the infrequent bed net usage (, ) were associated with the infection. Pregnant infected women had a higher risk of anaemia (, ) and fever (, ). Conclusion. The screening for malaria during antenatal care in endemic areas of Colombia is highly recommended due to the potential adverse effects of Plasmodium spp. infection in pregnancy and as an important activity for the surveillance of asymptomatic infections in the control of malaria.
Genotypic Variation in Trichomonas vaginalis Detected in South African Pregnant Women
Background. Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis. The genetic characterisation of T. vaginalis isolates reveals significant genetic diversity in this organism. Data on the prevalence of different genotypes of T. vaginalis in South African populations is lacking. This study investigated the diversity of T. vaginalis in a pregnant population in South Africa. Methods. In this study, 362 pregnant women from the King Edward VIII Hospital in Durban, South Africa, provided vaginal swabs to be tested for the presence of T. vaginalis. T. vaginalis was detected using the TaqMan assay using commercially available primers and probes specific for this protozoan (Pr04646256_s1). The actin gene from T. vaginalis was amplified with gene-specific primers. The actin amplicons were digested with HindII, MseI, and RsaI, and the banding patterns were compared across the three digests for assignment of genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using MEGA. Results. The prevalence of T. vaginalis in the study population was 12.9% (47/362). Genotype G was the most frequent genotype in our study population. Genotypes H and I were detected in one sample each. According to the multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis, a level of diversity was observed across and within genotypes. Four different single-nucleotide changes in the actin gene were detected. Sample TV358 (H genotype) contained a single amino acid substitution from glutamine to lysine. Sample TV184 (G genotype) contained a single amino acid substitution from glutamic acid to arginine. Sample TV357 (G genotype) contained two amino acid substitutions, arginine to leucine and glycine to aspartic acid. Conclusion. Three different genotypes were observed in the pregnant population. Diversity was observed across and within genotypes. The observed diversity can be challenging for future vaccine design and development of antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests for trichomoniasis.
Azithromycin in the Treatment of Preterm Prelabor Rupture of Membranes Demonstrates a Lower Risk of Chorioamnionitis and Postpartum Endometritis with an Equivalent Latency Period Compared with Erythromycin Antibiotic Regimens
Objective. To determine if antibiotic regimens including azithromycin versus erythromycin has an impact on pregnancy latency and development of clinical chorioamnionitis in the context of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. Study Design. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study and followed all women receiving antibiotic regimens including either azithromycin or erythromycin in the context of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. Primary outcomes were the duration of pregnancy latency period and development of chorioamnionitis. Secondary outcomes included neonatal sepsis with positive blood culture, cesarean delivery, postpartum endometritis, and meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Results. This study included 310 patients, with 142 receiving the azithromycin regimen and 168 receiving the erythromycin regimen. Patients receiving the azithromycin regimen had a statistically significant advantage in overall rates of clinical chorioamnionitis (13.4% versus 25%, ), neonatal sepsis (4.9% versus 14.9%, ), and postpartum endometritis (14.8% versus 31%, ). In crude and adjusted models, when comparing the azithromycin group with the erythromycin group, a decreased risk was noted for the development of clinical chorioamnionitis, neonatal sepsis, and postpartum endometritis. Pregnancy latency by regimen was not significantly different in crude and adjusted models. Conclusion. Our study suggests that latency antibiotic regimens substituting azithromycin for erythromycin have lower rates and decreased risk of clinical chorioamnionitis, neonatal sepsis, and postpartum endometritis with no difference in pregnancy latency.
Prevalence of Genotypes and Subtypes of Gardnerella vaginalis in South African Pregnant Women
Background. Gardnerella vaginalis, a microorganism highly linked to bacterial vaginosis (BV), is understudied in terms of genotypic heterogeneity in South African populations. This study investigated the prevalence of G. vaginalis genotypes in BV-positive, BV-intermediate, and BV-negative South African pregnant women. Methods. The study population included pregnant women recruited from a public hospital in Durban, South Africa. The women provided self-collected vaginal swabs for BV diagnosis by Nugent scoring. For the genotyping assays, the 16S rRNA and sialidase A genes from BV-negative, BV-intermediate, and BV-positive samples were amplified with G. vaginalis-specific primers. The16S rRNA amplicon was digested with TaqI to generate genotyping profiles, and subtypes were determined by correlating BamHI and HindIII digestion profiles. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on the 16S rRNA and sialidase A sequences. The data analysis was performed with R Statistical Computing software, version 3.6.2. Results. Two different genotypes, GT1 and GT2, were detected. The most prevalent genotype was GT1. Four subtypes (1, 2B, 2AB, and 2C) were shown to be present. The most prevalent subtype was 2B, followed by subtypes 1, 2C, and 2AB. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA showed the presence of 5 clusters. The tree displayed clusters which contained sequences from the same BV group with different genotypes and subtypes. Clusters with sequences from across the BV groups carrying the same genotype and subtype were present. Diversity of the sialidase A across BV groups and genotypes was observed. Finally, the study did not find a significant association () between reported symptoms of abnormal vaginal discharge and genotype harboured. Conclusion. This study provided the first report on the diversity of G. vaginalis in South African pregnant women. Diversity assessments of G. vaginalis with respect to genotypes and virulence factors may aid in a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of this microorganism.