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Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology publishes articles related to infectious diseases in women’s health. Topics include diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, urinary tract infections, and infections in pregnancy.
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Factors Associated with Antenatal Influenza Vaccination in a Medically Underserved Population
Influenza infection in pregnant women is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Despite recommendations for all women to receive the seasonal influenza vaccine during pregnancy, vaccination rates among pregnant women in the U.S. have remained around 50%. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical and demographic factors associated with antenatal influenza vaccination in a medically underserved population of women. We conducted a retrospective cohort study at Grady Memorial Hospital, a large safety-net hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, from July 1, 2016, to June 30, 2018. Demographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted from the electronic medical record. The Kotelchuck index was used to assess prenatal care adequacy. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for associations between receipt of influenza vaccine and prenatal care adequacy, demographic characteristics, and clinical characteristics were calculated using multivariable log-binominal models. Among 3723 pregnant women with deliveries, women were primarily non-Hispanic black (68.4%) and had Medicaid as their primary insurance type (87.9%). The overall vaccination rate was 49.8% (1853/3723). Inadequate prenatal care adequacy was associated with a lower antenatal influenza vaccination rate (43.5%), while intermediate and higher levels of prenatal care adequacy were associated with higher vaccination rates (66.9–68.3%). Hispanic ethnicity, non-Hispanic other race/ethnicity, interpreter use for a language other than Spanish, and preexisting diabetes mellitus were associated with higher vaccination coverage in multivariable analyses. Among medically underserved pregnant women, inadequate prenatal care utilization was associated with a lower rate of antenatal influenza vaccination. Socially disadvantaged women may face individual and structural barriers when accessing prenatal care, suggesting that evidenced-based, tailored approaches may be needed to improve prenatal care utilization and antenatal influenza vaccination rates.
Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Produced by Escherichia coli Colonizing Pregnant Women
Introduction. Infections caused by extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria continue to be a challenge for choosing the appropriate therapy since they may exhibit coresistance to many other classes of antibiotics. The aim of the study was to screen pregnant women for ESBL producing bacteria in Beirut, Lebanon, to examine their phenotypic and genotypic characterization and to study the association between ESBL colonization with adverse neonatal outcomes. Method. In this cross-sectional study, vaginal samples from 308 pregnant women at 35–37 weeks of gestation were studied during a one-year period. The samples were plated on MacConkey agar and selective MacConkey agar supplemented with ceftazidime. Phenotypic confirmation of ESBL production was performed by double-disc synergy test and all isolates were screened by PCR for the resistance genes blaSHV, blaTEM, and blaCTX-M. Clonal relatedness of Escherichia coli isolates was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Results. In total, 59 women out of 308 (19.1%) were colonized by ESBL producing gram negative bacteria. Two babies born to mothers colonized with ESBL were diagnosed with sepsis. The susceptibility rates of isolates to other antibiotics were 39% to co-trimoxazole, 49.2% to ciprofloxacin, 91.5% to gentamicin, 18.6% to aztreonam and 35.6% to cefepime. Most of isolates were highly sensitive to meropenem and imipenem, with a susceptibility of 93.2%. PCR was performed on all E. coli isolates to detect the most common ESBL producing genes; blaCTX-M was the predominant gene (90.7%), followed by blaTEM (88.4%) and finally blaSHV (44.2%). PFGE analysis of 34 E. coli isolates revealed 22 distinct clusters showing more than 85% similarity. Conclusion. In conclusion, this study showed that Lebanon has a high prevalence of ESBL carriage in pregnant women. Further studies that include a continuous screening of pregnant women and follow up of their newborn clinical status should be conducted to foresee the risk of transmission.
Does Aerobic Vaginitis Have Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes? Prospective Observational Study
Background. Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an aberration within the balanced vaginal microbiota. Only few reports have documented the adverse pregnancy outcomes related to AV. Nonetheless, the exact role of AV in pregnancy and the potential benefit of its screening need further study. Our goal was to evaluate the association between aerobic vaginitis (AV) in late pregnancy and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods. In this prospective observational study, a total of 600 singleton pregnant women with intact fetal membranes at a gestational age of 34-36 weeks were recruited (one hundred women with AV and 500 pregnant women without AV). The study protocol excluded patients with other forms of vaginal infection. Pregnancy outcomes were traced and documented. The primary outcome was the association between AV and preterm labor. The current study compared the maternal and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women with and without AV in unadjusted and adjusted analyses with the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) reported. Results. There was an association between AV and with preterm birth (adjusted OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.58-5.95) and prelabor rupture of membranes (adjusted OR 6.17, 95% CI 3.24-11.7). For neonatal outcomes, AV was associated with a higher incidence of neonatal ICU admission (adjusted OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.1-4.34). Severe forms of AV significantly increased the incidence of PTB () and PROM () when compared to less severe forms of AV. Conclusion. AV is common in late pregnancy and is linked to a diversity of adversative pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth, PROM, and neonatal ICU admission. Moreover, the incidence of PTB and PROM might further increase with the severity of AV. Clinicians should pay more consideration to vaginal microbiota assessment during pregnancy.
A Retrospective Review of Neonatal Sepsis among GBS-Colonized Women Undergoing Planned Cesarean Section after Labor Onset or Rupture of Membranes
Background. Sepsis is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates, with group B streptococcus (GBS) remaining the most frequent pathogen isolated from term infants. Surveillance data showed that the majority of cases of early-onset GBS disease were neonates born to women who either received no or suboptimal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with a notable portion of those women having a missed opportunity to receive ≥4 hours of chemoprophylaxis. Women planning delivery by cesarean section who present in labor or rupture of membranes prior to their scheduled surgery are unlikely to receive optimal GBS chemoprophylaxis and thus their neonates are at risk of having sepsis. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study of women-infant dyads was extracted from the Consortium on Safe Labor dataset. Women who had an unlabored cesarean section at week gestation were selected and divided into four groups based on GBS status and timing of cesarean section with respect to onset of labor or rupture of membranes. The rate of neonatal sepsis and the patterns of intrapartum antibiotic chemoprophylaxis were determined. Results. The sepsis rate (4.5%) among neonates of GBS-colonized women having their unlabored cesarean section after onset of labor or rupture of membranes was significantly higher than that in any other group in this study. In this group, 9.4% of women received chemoprophylaxis for ≥4 hours, while 31% had a missed opportunity to receive ≥4 hours of chemoprophylaxis. Conclusion. This study suggests that neonates of GBS-colonized women having a planned cesarean section after onset of labor or rupture of membranes are at increased risk of having a sepsis diagnosis. This finding suggest the need for additional studies to assess the risk of sepsis among neonates of women in this group.
Bacteriuria in Pregnancy in a Danish Contemporary Cohort of Women
Introduction. The purpose of this study is to describe bacteriuria with regard to the uropathogens found in relation to the frequency of urine culture tests in a contemporary cohort of pregnant Danish women. Methods. A historical cohort study of 24,817 pregnant women registered in the Danish Fetal Medicine Database at Aarhus University Hospital, from 2010 to 2014. Social security numbers were linked to the microbiological database with the registration of 17,233 urine cultures in 8,807 women. Bacteriuria was defined as CFU/ml, with a maximum of two urinary pathogens. Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) was included with CFU/ml. Data are presented as numbers and proportions in percent. Logistic regression on predictors are presented as crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORc/ORa) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results. 42% had a urine sample culture test at the hospital—the majority only once during pregnancy. 96% of all urine culture tests were negative. The bacteriuria incidence was 5.6%. The most frequent uropathogenic bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli (49%), GBS (29%), and Enterococci (10%). We identified subgroups of women with increased likelihood of bacteriuria during pregnancy: years, ORa 1.60 (CI 1.26 to 2.02, ); years, ORa 1.28 (CI 1.01 to 1.61, ); Afro-Caribbean origin, ORa 1.872 (CI 1.13 to 3.07, ); Asian origin, ORa 2.07 (CI 1.29 to 3.32, ); and mixed ethnicity ORa 2.34 (CI 1.23 to 4.46, ). Women delivering preterm were more likely to have an episode of bacteriuria during pregnancy OR 2.05 (CI 1.36 to 3.09, ). Conclusions. 96% of urine culture tests in pregnant women are negative. Optimized urine sampling may change this. Escherichia coli and GBS are predominant uropathogens. Younger and elder women, certain ethnical groups, and women delivering preterm seem more likely to have bacteriuria during pregnancy.
Assisted Reproductive Technology as a Transcutaneous Route for Bacterial Contamination of Ovarian Endometrioma with Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus: Case Report and Review of the Literature
Tubo-ovarian abscess may develop in women with endometrioma following assisted reproductive technology (ART). The infection, though rare, is typically late in onset and may present several months after the procedure, and in pregnancy—with the risks of abortion and premature labor. It is thought that transcutaneous oocyte retrieval during ART is the route for bacterial contamination resulting in infection of the endometrioma. Pathogens reported in the literature include Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Group B streptococcus (GBS) but Staphylococcus lugdunensis (S. lugdunensis), a coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS), and groin and perineal skin commensal was isolated from the endometrioma in this case. We discuss the challenges in diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition and the implications of the discovery that an organism previously dismissed as a contaminant has emerged as a causative organism in severe, deep-seated infections of soft tissues in recent literature.