Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
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Prevalence of Diarrhea, Feeding Practice, and Associated Factors among Children under Five Years in Bereh District, Oromia, Ethiopia

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Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology publishes articles related to infectious diseases in women’s health. Topics include diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, urinary tract infections, and infections in pregnancy.

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Research Article

Significant Associations between Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Pregnant Women

There is a lack of data on the burden of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among human immunodeficiency virus- (HIV-) infected pregnant women in South Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional study which included 385 HIV-infected pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the King Edward VIII Hospital in Durban, South Africa. The women provided vaginal swabs which were tested for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. The prevalence of the individual STIs was as follows: C. trachomatis (47/385, 12.2%) and N. gonorrhoeae (16/385, 4.1%). Having a circumcised partner, testing positive for N. gonorrhoeae, and perceiving themselves of being at risk for infection were shown to increase the risk for C. trachomatis infection. Without controlling for the other factors, testing positive for N. gonorrhoeae increased the risk for C. trachomatis infection by 10-fold (OR: 10.17, 95% CI: 3.39-29.66, ). Similarly, adjusting for the other factors, the risk for C. trachomatis infection in women who tested positive for N. gonorrhoeae was 9-fold (OR: 9.16, 95% CI: 2.19-40.18, ). The following factors were associated with the increased risk of N. gonorrhoeae infection: not knowing their partner’s HIV status, partner having other partners, and C. trachomatis infection status. Without controlling for the other factors, testing positive for C. trachomatis increased the risk for N. gonorrhoeae infection by 6-fold (OR: 6.52, 95% CI: 2.22-18.49, ). Similarly, adjusting for the other factors, the risk for N. gonorrhoeae infection in women who tested positive for C. trachomatis was 6-fold (OR: 6.09, 95% CI: 1.73-22.03, ). We found a significant association between C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in the pregnant women and the risk factors associated with these pathogens. Future studies are urgently required to investigate the impact of C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae coinfections in HIV pregnant women since this data is lacking in our setting. In addition, etiological screening of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae during antenatal clinic is urgently required to prevent adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes associated with these infections.

Research Article

Burden and Associated Genotype Patterns of High-Risk Human Papilloma Virus Infection and Cervical Cytology Abnormalities among Women in Central India

Background. The epidemiology of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and the pattern of HPV genotype distribution are much-needed parameters to assess the risk of cervical cancer among females. However, due to less availability of data on HPV burden and its genotypes from various geographical regions in India makes cervical cancer screening modalities and vaccination strategies difficult to implement. Objective. The present study was conducted to identify the various genotypes particularly high-risk HPV types in premalignant or malignant cervical lesions. Methods. The study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study wherein 295 symptomatic women were screened by Pap smear and multiplex real-time PCR was performed for HPV genotypes identification in women with abnormal cervical cytology. Results. Out of 295 women, 237 (80.3%), 45 (15.3%), and 13 (4.4%) women had normal Pap smear, squamous cell carcinoma and precancerous cytology, respectively. Among these 58 women having abnormal cervical cytology, HPV was detected in 48 (81.0%) participants. Most common HPV genotypes in our study were HPV 16 (; 60.4%) followed by mixed infections; i.e., more than one type of HPV was detected (, 20.8%). HPV 18 was detected only in 6.25%, whereas other high-risk HPV genotypes were found to be 12.5%. Conclusion. HPV positivity was >80% in women having abnormal Pap smear. The prevalence of HPV 18 was found to be much less in Central India, compared to other parts of country. HPV 16 was the most common genotype followed by mixed HPV genotype infections. It is evident from our study that symptomatic women even if having normal Pap smear should be screened for HPV and followed up with periodic Pap smears for detecting any change in cervical cytology, thus preventing cervical cancer in women.

Research Article

Maternal Age and Stage of Pregnancy as Determinants of UTI in Pregnancy: A Case of Tamale, Ghana

Introduction. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the world’s second most common cause of death, trailing only respiratory tract infections. Because of anatomical and physiological changes along the urinary tract, pregnant women accounted for approximately 20% of all cases of urinary tract infection. Aim. This study sought to assess maternal age and stage of pregnancy as determinants of UTI among pregnant women in Tamale. Methods. This study employed a descriptive cross-sectional survey as the study design in the antenatal clinic of Tamale Central Hospital (TCH). This was carried out by reviewing laboratory records of urinalysis results done on pregnant women. Data entry and analysis were performed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Chi-square and binary logistics analysis were used to determine the relationship. Results. Data analysis was done for 158 pregnant women, most (35.4%) were within the age group of 36-45 years, and most (38.6%) were within their first trimester. The overall prevalence of UTI infections among pregnant women was 33.5%. The prevalence was 27.8% for candiduria and 8.9% for bacteriuria. Women in the first trimester of their pregnancy were more likely to have UTI (, 95% CI =1.03–5.94). Also, Pregnant women of the age group of 26-35 years were less likely to get UTIs as compared to those of the age group 15-25 years (, 95% CI =0.17–0.92). Finally, those of the age group of 36-45 years were less likely to get UTI as compared to those of the age group 15-25 years (, 95% CI =0.12–0.66). Conclusion. The prevalence of UTI among studied pregnant women was high (38.0%), and the most prone maternal age group and trimesters to UTI are 15-25 years and first trimester, respectively.

Research Article

Association of Dietary Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, Insulin Index, and Insulin Load with Bacterial Vaginosis in Iranian Women: A Case-Control Study

Background. Inconsistent findings have been reported for associations between dietary indices and bacterial vaginosis (BV). The aim of this study was to examine the association of dietary glycemic index (DGI), glycemic load (DGL), insulin index (DII), and insulin load (DIL) with BV among Iranian women. Methods. The current case-control study consisted of 144 new cases of BV and 151 controls. The diagnosis of BV was made based on the Amsel criterion in hospital clinics in Tehran, Iran, from November 2020 until June 2021. DGI, DGL, DII, and DIL were calculated from a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. The association between dietary carbohydrate indices and odds of BV were assessed adjusting for potential confounders through an estimation of two multivariate regression models. Results. The multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing the highest tertile of dietary DGI and DGL with the lower tertile was 2.99 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47–6.81; ) and 4.01 (95% CI: 1.22–5.91; ), respectively. In a fully adjusted model, the top tertile of dietary fiber compared to the bottom was associated with 88% (95% CI: 0.14-0.33) lower odds of BV (). DII and DIL were not significantly associated with odds of BV in both crude and adjusted regression models. Conclusion. The findings support the hypothesis of moderate, direct associations between DGI or DGL and BV. Also, a diet high in fiber decreases odds of BV.

Research Article

Documented β-Lactam Allergy and Risk for Cesarean Surgical Site Infection

Objective. To examine the relationship between documented β-lactam allergy and cesarean delivery (CD) surgical site infection (SSI). Study Design. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of women who underwent CD at Ben Taub Hospital and Texas Children’s Pavilion for Women (Houston, TX) from August 1, 2011, to December 31, 2019. The primary exposure was a documented β-lactam allergy, and the second exposure of interest was the type of perioperative antibiotic received. The primary outcome was the prevalence of SSI. Maternal characteristics were stratified by the presence or absence of a documented β-lactam allergy, and significance was evaluated using Pearson’s chi-squared test for categorical variables and -test for continuous variables. A logistic regression model estimated odds of SSI after adjusting for possible confounders. Results. Of the 12,954 women included, 929 (7.2%) had a documented β-lactam allergy while 12,025 (92.8%) did not. Among the 929 women with a β-lactam allergy, 495 (53.3%) received non-β-lactam perioperative prophylaxis. SSI occurred in 38 (4.1%) of women who had a β-lactam allergy versus 238 (2.0%) who did not (). β-Lactam allergy was associated with higher odds of SSI compared to no allergy (; -3.14; ) after controlling for age, race, ethnicity, insurance status, delivery body mass index (BMI), tobacco use, intra-amniotic infection in labor, duration of membrane rupture, preterm delivery, delivery indication, diabetes, hypertension, group B Streptococcus colonization, and type of perioperative antibiotic received. Conclusion. The presence of a β-lactam allergy is associated with increased odds of developing a CD SSI after controlling for possible confounders, including the type of perioperative antibiotic received.

Research Article

Positive Anti-HIV ELISA Results in Pregnancy: Is It Reliable?

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be transmitted from mothers to their babies during pregnancy, delivery through vaginal fluids or breastfeeding. As false positivity anti-HIV results due to pregnancy could be detected and no relevant study have been reported in Northern Cyprus so far, we aimed to estimate the false anti-HIV positivity rate in pregnant women. Methods: A total of 11.977 women admitted to Near East University Hospital between 2015 and 2018 were involved. The fourth generation anti-HIV-1/2 ELISA test was carried out by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. Positive results were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR). SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) Demo Ver 22 program was used for statistical analysis and significance (p<0.05) was measured by Person Chi-Square and Fisher's Exact tests. Results: Anti-HIV-1/2 ELISA test was positive in 7 (0.3%) of pregnant and 11 (0.1%) of non-pregnant women. HIV RNA was not detected in any pregnant however, was detected in 2 (0.02%) of non pregnant. S/Co titer of pregnant and non pregnant who have positive anti-HIV-test without viral load was x̄=2.68±1.64 (1.34-5.20) and x̄=8.63±7.68 (1.56-20.98) respectively. False positivity was significantly higher in pregnants compared to non-pregnants (p=0.033). Conclusion: False positivity can be encountered during pregnancy therefore, positive anti-HIV-1/2 ELISA results should be confirmed with molecular techniques before initiating antiretroviral treatment.

Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate13%
Submission to final decision92 days
Acceptance to publication14 days
CiteScore3.000
Journal Citation Indicator-
Impact Factor-
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2021, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.