Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Pregnant Women in Kumasi: A Cross-Sectional Study at a District-Level Hospital, GhanaRead the full article
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology publishes articles related to infectious diseases in women’s health. Topics include diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, urinary tract infections, and infections in pregnancy.
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Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolated from South African Pregnant Women
Background. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a sexually transmitted infection, is associated with adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Emerging resistance towards various antibiotics has been observed globally. However, there is a lack of data on antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in N. gonorrhoeae isolated from pregnant women in our setting. This study fills in this gap in the literature. Methods. The study population included pregnant women, recruited from the antenatal clinic of the King Edward VIII hospital (KEH) in Durban. Endocervical swabs were obtained from 307 women. The swab was placed in Amies Charcoal media for culture assessments. Pure isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the Etest™ method. The MIC values were assessed in accordance with the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST, 2019) breakpoints. Results. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae by culture was 1.9%. High MIC values to penicillin G (12-64 mg/L) indicating a resistant phenotype were observed for all isolates tested, with 50% of the isolates displaying complete resistance. Isolates with intermediate (1 mg/L) and resistance (1.9-32 mg/L) profiles to tetracycline were observed. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (1.16-3 mg/L) was also observed. Isolates displayed either dual or triple resistance to penicillin G, tetracycline, or ciprofloxacin. All isolates showed susceptibility to spectinomycin (>64 mg/L), azithromycin (1 mg/L), ceftriaxone (>0.125 mg/L), and cefixime (>0.125 mg/L). Conclusion. Despite lack of resistance to ceftriaxone and azithromycin, continuous surveillance for emerging patterns of resistance to these antibiotics is needed since they form part of the treatment guidelines.
Progression of CIN1/LSIL HPV Persistent of the Cervix: Actual Progression or CIN3 Coexistence
Objective. The natural history of the CIN1 lesions is characterized by an elevated rate of spontaneous regression (80%), some authors recognize a capacity to progress to HSIL in 10% of cases, and other authors do not recognize the capacity of progression of LSIL (CIN1). This study was aimed to evaluate the incidence of progression to HSIL (CIN3) in women with a histological diagnosis of LSIL (CIN1). Furthermore, to this end, we studied the histological outcomes of cone specimens collected by the LEEP. Methods. All the data were retrospectively analyzed. All participants underwent a follow-up of 4 years, during which each woman underwent an HPV test and genotyping, cervical cytological sampling, or biopsy every six months. The endpoint was the histological confirmation of CIN3 lesions in any moment during follow-up. Results. Progression to CIN3 occurred in 7 cases (1,5%). Analyzing the histological exams of the cones of the 7 cases that progressed to CIN3, we found the coexistence of CIN1 and CIN3 lesions in all cases. Conclusion. After 4 years of follow-up, only 1.5% (7/475) of the women with LSIL developed CIN3, all within the first two years of follow-up, and were immediately treated. The most likely explanations for “progression” from LSIL to HSIL are (1) actual progression, (2) underdiagnosis of HSIL on initial biopsy, (3) overdiagnosis of HSIL on follow-up biopsy/cone, and (4) CIN3 arose de novo. Analyzing the histological exams of the cones of the 7 cases that progressed to high-grade, we found the coexistence of CIN1 and CIN3 lesions in all cases. Some recent studies have shown that a viral genotype corresponds to different lesions in the same cervix; therefore, CIN1 coexisting with CIN3 does not always indicate progression of CIN1. Other authors have doubted the capacity of LSIL to progress.
Development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease after Ectopic Removal
Although ectopic pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are separately commonly seen in practice, development of PID after surgical removal is rare. Here, we present the case of a 41-year-old female who was admitted for pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosed after laparoscopic salpingectomy for a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Treatment required drainage of TOAs with interventional radiology and antibiotic treatment. This case report demonstrates how treatment of PID following ectopic pregnancy is complex and may require surgical- or radiology-guided drainage of infection in addition to common antibiotic treatment. Follow-up and duration of treatment are highlighted.
Efficacy of Nucleotide/Nucleoside Analogues and Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin Therapy in Blocking Mother-to-Child Transmission of Hepatitis B in an Eastern Chinese Group
The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and potential side-effects of nucleotide/nucleoside analogues and hepatitis B immunoglobulin injection of newborns in blocking mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus in the middle and late pregnancy period. 238 cases of enrolled pregnant women were divided into the Telbivudine group, the Tenofovir group, the Lamivudine group, and the hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) group. Enrolled patients received corresponding therapies. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. Results showed that the levels of HBV DNA of the enrolled pregnant women in the Telbivudine, Tenofovir, and Lamivudine groups decreased rapidly after 12 weeks of drug intervention compared with those in the control. HBsAg positive rate in newborns and in children 24 weeks after birth was 0/60, 0/60, 0/60, 3/30, and 11/28 in the Telbivudine, Tenofovir, Lamivudine, HBIG, and control groups, respectively. No significant side-effects were identified after following up to 12 months after birth. Our results show that routine HBV vaccine plus HBIG injections is insufficient in blocking mother-to-child HBV transmission. Administration of nucleotide/nucleoside analogues or HBIG at pregnancy is suggested to maximize the blocking of vertical HBV transmission.
Vertical Transmission of COVID-19 to the Neonate
Objective. To estimate the incidence rate of vertical transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to the neonate during the third trimester. Study Design. We conducted a retrospective observational study of pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 during the third trimester, who delivered at Flushing Hospital Medical Centre (FHMC) or Jamaica Hospital Medical Centre (JHMC) between March 20, 2020, and April 30, 2020. The study participants were symptomatic pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 via positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR) test. Evidence of vertical transmission was assessed in the neonate via a SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR test, with nasopharyngeal swab samples collected on the neonates after 24 hours of birth. The exclusion criteria for this study were maternal or neonate records without SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR test results, neonates not delivered at FHMC or JHMC, and foetuses with suspected foetal anomalies or incomplete medical records. Results. We identified 19 symptomatic pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19, including two women with twin pregnancies. Seven patients (36.8%) were delivered via cesarean. 12 patients (63.1%) presented in spontaneous labour, and 8 (38.1%) had preterm delivery. No maternal intensive care unit admission, maternal sepsis, or maternal mortality was observed. Twenty-one neonates were evaluated for COVID-19 after birth. SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR test results were negative in 100% of the neonates. Thirteen neonates (61.9%) were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Prematurity was the most common cause of NICU admission 6 (46.1%), with a length of stay of days. No invasive mechanical ventilation, neonatal sepsis, or neonatal mortality was observed. Conclusion. In our cohort, symptomatic COVID-19 during the third trimester of pregnancy was not associated with vertical transmission to the neonate.
Improving Obstetric Provider Congenital Cytomegalovirus Knowledge and Practices
Background. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMV) is the most common congenital infection. Antenatal education is proven to reduce cCMV risk. Little is known about obstetric provider knowledge and practice patterns around cCMV. Objectives. To evaluate obstetric provider knowledge and practice patterns regarding cCMV at baseline and again after a brief educational intervention. Methods. Obstetric providers () at a US academic community hospital were invited to complete a survey regarding their knowledge and practice patterns around cCMV. Providers attended a brief presentation about cCMV and later were invited to repeat the same survey. Univariate statistics were calculated for baseline data, and prepost intervention comparison analyses were conducted. Results. Baseline cCMV knowledge was low at 49% ( out of a possible 36, SD 6.4), with most providers (51%) reporting never counseling pregnant patients about cCMV. Post intervention, overall cCMV knowledge increased to 80% (, SD 4.1, ); provider intention to counsel about cCMV prevention increased to 100%. Conclusions. Obstetric provider knowledge about cCMV is low, which likely impacts their antenatal counseling. Educational initiatives to increase awareness about cCMV may increase antenatal education and thereby decrease the risk of cCMV.