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Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 183-190

Microbiology Profile in Women With Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Relation to IUD Use

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
2Department of Microbiology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia
3Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 85, Sweden
4Uppsala Clinical Research Centre, UCR, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

Copyright © 2005 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To study the microbial characteristics of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and the possible impact of an intrauterine device (IUD) on the microbial environment in women presenting with PID.

Methods. Case-control study, investigating 51 women with acute PID and 50 healthy women. Endocervical specimens for microbiological investigation were obtained at gynaecological examination.

Results. IUD users with PID had significantly more Fusobacteria spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. than non-IUD users with PID. The finding of combinations of several anaerobic or aerobic microbes was associated with a significantly increased risk of PID and with complicated PID. In IUD users, the combinations of several anaerobic/aerobic microbes were associated with an increased risk of PID, irrespective of duration of IUD use. Long-term IUD use appeared to be associated with an increased risk of a PID being complicated.

Conclusion. The finding of several anaerobic or aerobic microbes appears to be associated with PID in users of IUD.