Table 2: Association of crack and cocaine use with prevalence, incidence, and clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical squamous intraepethelial lesions (SIL) (adjusted analysis*).

Crack or cocaine use in the past six monthsAny HPVOncogenic HPVNononcogenic HPVSIL with oncogenic HPV

Prevalent HPV and SIL: OR (95% CI)
Yes1.22 (1.09–1.37)1.30 (1.09–1.55)1.18 (1.04–1.34)1.70 (1.27–2.27)

Incident HPV and SIL: HR (95% CI)
Yes1.20 (1.02–1.42)1.21 (0.97–1.52)1.20 (1.00–1.44)1.51 (0.99–2.30)

Clearance of HPV and SIL**: HR (95% CI)
Yes1.02 (0.88–1.17)0.96 (0.80–1.16)1.05 (0.88–1.25)0.57 (0.34–0.97)

*Adjusted for CD4 count, number of sexual partners, smoking, age and race.**As there were a limited number of SIL infections with oncogenic HPV for analysis of SIL clearance, results presented for risk of SIL clearance include all SIL observed with or without oncogenic HPV.