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Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2010, Article ID 317430, 7 pages
Case Report

Elevated Levels of IL-10 and G-CSF Associated with Asymptomatic Malaria in Pregnant Women

1Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry & Immunology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310, USA
2Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), Birmingham, AL 35294-0022, USA
3Department of Pathology, University of Ghana Medical School, Korle-Bu, Accra, Ghana
4Department of Biology, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA

Received 15 April 2010; Accepted 8 June 2010

Academic Editor: Michael G. Gravett

Copyright © 2010 Nana O. Wilson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In sub-Saharan Africa, approximately 30 million pregnant women are at risk of contracting malaria annually. Nearly 36% of healthy pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care tested positive for Plasmodium falciparum HRP-II antigen in Ghana. We tested the hypothesis that asymptomatic HRP II positive pregnant women expressed a unique Th1 and Th2 phenotype that differs from healthy controls. Plasma from healthy ( ) and asymptomatic ( ) pregnant women were evaluated for 27 biomarkers (IL-1b, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL- 17, Eotaxin, bFGF-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN- , IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1 , MIP-1 , PDGF-bb, RANTES, TNF, and VEGF) associated with Th1 and Th2 cytokine homeostasis. IL-10 and G-CSF levels were elevated in the asymptomatic group when compared with the healthy group ( and .041, resp.). The median ratios of IL-1 :5, IL-1 :10, IL-1 :G-CSF, IL-1 :Eotaxin, IL-12:G-CSF, IL-15:10, IL-17:G-CSF, IL-17:Eotaxin, TNF:IL-4, TNF:IL-5, and TNF:G-CSF were significantly different among the two groups. Thus, asymptomatic malaria carriage may be linked to circulating levels of IL-10 and G-CSF.