Table 1: Baseline characteristics of HIV-infected women aged 16–50 years receiving antiretroviral treatment at 16 public-sector clinics in Lusaka, Zambia (November 2009–November 2010).

Women with documented RH counselingWomen with no documented RH counseling visit P-value
NValueNValue

Age at 1st visit (years), median (IQR)18,40734.6 (29.9–39.7)14,59134.7 (29.5–40.9)<0.001++
 16–241,2466.8%1,2638.7%<0.001**
 25–348,36245.4%6,23242.7%
 ≥358,79947.8%7,09648.6%

Marital status14,18011,135
 Married8,52360.1%6,57059.0%0.076**
 Single/divorced/widowed5,65739.9%4,56541.0%

Education16,91013,441
 None4,67727.7%3,78528.2%0.016**
 Primary5,60333.1%4,24631.6%
 Secondary or more6,63039.2%5,41040.2%

Number of living children, median (IQR)14,3852 (1–3)11,3732 (1–3)0.061++
 01,80612.6%1,50513.2%0.106**
 ≥112,57987.4%9,86886.8%

Monthly income12,2439,400
 <ZMK 200,0004,53237.0%3,86441.1%<0.001**
 ≥ZMK 200,0007,71163.0%5,53658.9%

CD4+ cell count (cells/uL), median (IQR)18,231394 (256–558)14,419357 (228–522)<0.001++
 <2504,36123.9%4,18729.0%<0.001**
 250–3503,33818.3%2,81919.6%
 ≥35110,53257.8%7,41351.4%

Hemoglobin (g/dL), median (IQR)18,17512.4 (11.3–13.4)14,24812.2 (11.0–13.1)<0.001++
 ≤8.03632.0%4823.4%<0.001**
 8.1–9.91,3657.5%1,2769.0%
 ≥10.016,44790.5%12,49087.7%

History or current tuberculosis18,40714,591
 Yes3,44118.7%2,77119.0%0.493**
 No14,96681.3%11,82081.0%

Time on ART (days), median (IQR)18,407709 (262–1,302)14,591659 (245–1,180)<0.001++

HIV status disclosure to partner18,40714,591
 Yes7,82342.5%6,02641.3%0.028**
 Unknown10,58457.5%8,56558.7%

Partner’s HIV status18,40714,591
 Negative6213.4%4563.1%<0.001**
 Positive3,59819.5%2,59917.8%
 Unknown5,33229.0%4,36229.9%
 Missing8,85648.1%7,17449.2%

RH: reproductive health; IQR: interquartile range; ZMK: Zambian Kwacha; ART: antiretroviral therapy.
**Person’s chi-square test; ++Wilcoxon rank sum test.