Table 3: Predictors of dual method use among HIV-infected women aged 16–50 years receiving antiretroviral treatment at 16 public-sector clinics in Lusaka, Zambia (November 2009–November 2010).

Women using dual methodsWomen not using dual methodsCrude OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)
N = 2,247N = 9,111

Age at 1st visit (years)
 16–24170 (7.6%)566 (6.2%)1.001.00
 25–341,269 (56.5%)4,478 (49.1%)0.94 (0.79–1.13)0.80 (0.62–1.04)
 ≥35808 (36.0%)4,067 (44.6%)0.66 (0.55–0.80)0.51 (0.41–0.63)

Marital status
 Married1,407 (77.9%)5,096 (71.7%)1.001.00
 Single/divorced/widowed400 (22.1%)2,014 (28.3%)0.72 (0.64–0.81)0.75 (0.66–0.86)

Education
 None562 (27.0%)2,300 (27.4%)1.001.00
 Primary692 (33.2%)2,801 (33.4%)1.01 (0.89–1.14)1.02 (0.86–1.21)
 Secondary or more830 (39.8%)3,278 (39.1%)1.04 (0.92–1.17)1.06 (0.90–1.24)

Number of living children
 0154 (8.4%)887 (12.4%)1.001.00
 ≥11,685 (91.6%)6,262 (87.6%)1.55 (1.30–1.85)2.07 (1.59–2.70)

Monthly income
 <ZMK 200,000538 (35.0%)2,171 (36.1%)1.001.00
 ≥ZMK 200,000999 (65.0%)3,836 (63.9%)1.05 (0.93–1.18)0.93 (0.82–1.07)

CD4+ cell count (cells/uL)
 <250438 (19.7%)2,035 (22.5%)1.001.00
 250–350394 (17.7%)1,648 (18.2%)1.11 (0.96–1.29)1.05 (0.87–1.26)
 ≥3511,397 (62.7%)5,349 (59.2%)1.21 (1.08–1.37)1.25 (1.09–1.45)

Hemoglobin (g/dL)
 ≤8.028 (1.3%)140 (1.6%)1.001.00
 8.1–9.9120 (5.4%)590 (6.5%)1.02 (0.65–1.60)1.01 (0.51–2.02)
 ≥10.02,076 (93.3%)8,279 (91.9%)1.25 (0.83–1.89)1.31 (0.80–2.16)

History or current tuberculosis
 Yes333 (14.8%)1,666 (18.3%)1.001.00
 No1,914 (85.2%)7,445 (81.7%)1.29 (1.13–1.46)1.17 (1.01–1.35)

HIV status disclosure to partner
 Yes1,291 (57.5%)4,694 (51.5%)1.001.00
 Unknown956 (42.5%)4,417 (48.5%)0.79 (0.72–0.86)1.03 (0.85–1.25)

Partner’s HIV status
 Negative102 (4.5%)374 (4.1%)1.001.00
 Positive564 (25.1%)2,136 (23.4%)0.97 (0.76–1.23)0.92 (0.69–1.22)
 Unknown721 (32.1%)2,636 (28.9%)1.00 (0.79–1.27)1.03 (0.70–1.51)
 Missing860 (38.3%)3,965 (43.5%)0.80 (0.63–1.00)0.89 (0.65–1.22)

OR: odds ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval.