Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 319460, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/319460
Research Article

Bacterial Vaginosis and the Natural History of Human Papillomavirus

1Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NCCDPHP, DRH, 4770 Buford Highway, Mailstop K-34, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
3Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
4Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
5Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
6Division of Infectious Diseases, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201-1998, USA

Received 6 May 2011; Accepted 7 June 2011

Academic Editor: Gregory T. Spear

Copyright © 2011 Caroline C. King et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. F. Dunne, E. R. Unger, M. Sternberg et al., “Prevalence of HPV infection among females in the United States,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 297, no. 8, pp. 813–819, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, Vol. 90; Human Papillomaviruses, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, 2007.
  3. G. Rottini, A. Dobrina, O. Forgiarini, E. Nardon, G. A. Amirante, and P. Patriarca, “Identification and partial characterization of a cytolytic toxin produced by Gardnerella vaginalis,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 3751–3758, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. W. Taylor-Robinson, S. P. Borriello, and D. Taylor-Robinson, “Identification and preliminary characterization of a cytotoxin isolated from Mobiluncus spp,” International Journal of Experimental Pathology, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 357–366, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. Wiggins, S. J. Hicks, P. W. Soothill, M. R. Millar, and A. P. Corfield, “Mucinases and sialidases: their role in the pathogenesis of sexually transmitted infections in the female genital tract,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 402–408, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. J. Platz-Christensen, I. Mattsby-Baltzer, P. Thomsen, and N. Wiqvist, “Endotoxin and interleukin-1 alpha in the cervical mucus and vaginal fluid of pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 169, no. 5, pp. 1161–1166, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  7. E. Gillet, J. F. Meys, H. Verstraelen et al., “Bacterial vaginosis is associated with uterine cervical human papillomavirus infection: a meta-analysis,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 11, article 10, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. C. Mao, J. P. Hughes, N. Kiviat et al., “Clinical findings among young women with genital human papillomavirus infection,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 188, no. 3, pp. 677–684, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. H. Watts, M. Fazarri, H. Minkoff et al., “Effects of bacterial vaginosis and other genital infections on the natural history of human papillomavirus infection in HIV-1-infected and high-risk HIV-1-uninfected women,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 191, no. 7, pp. 1129–1139, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. D. Sobel, G. Muller, and H. R. Buckley, “Critical role of germ tube formation in the pathogenesis of candidal vaginitis,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 576–580, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Cassone, F. De Bernardis, F. Mondello, T. Ceddia, and L. Agatensi, “Evidence for a correlation between proteinase secretion and vulvovaginal candidosis,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 156, no. 5, pp. 777–783, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Barrett-Bee, Y. Hayes, R. G. Wilson, and J. F. Ryley, “A comparison of phospholipase activity, cellular adherence and pathogenicity of yeasts,” Journal of General Microbiology, vol. 131, no. 5, pp. 1217–1221, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. McNicol, M. Paraskevas, and F. Guijon, “Variability of polymerase chain reaction-based detection of human papillomavirus DNA is associated with the composition of vaginal microbial flora,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 194–200, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. B. Moscicki, N. Hills, S. Shiboski et al., “Risks for incident human papillomavirus infection and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion development in young females,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 285, no. 23, pp. 2995–3002, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. Samoff, E. H. Koumans, L. E. Markowitz et al., “Association of Chlamydia trachomatis with persistence of high-risk types of human papillomavirus in a cohort of female adolescents,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 162, no. 7, pp. 668–675, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. Rahkola, T. S. Mikkola, O. Ylikorkala, and M. Vaisanen-Tommiska, “Association between high risk papillomavirus DNA and nitric oxide release in the human uterine cervix,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 323–326, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. Peters, A. M. Van Leeuwen, W. J. Pieters, H. Hollema, W. G. Quint, and M. P. M. Burger, “Bacterial vaginosis is not important in the etiology of cervical neoplasia: a survey on women with dyskaryotic smears,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 296–302, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. Verteramo, A. Pierangeli, E. Mancini et al., “Human Papillomaviruses and genital co-infections in gynaecological outpatients,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 9, article 16, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. H. Nam, Y. T. Kim, S. R. Kim et al., “Association between bacterial vaginosis and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,” Journal of Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 39–43, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. K. Smith, D. L. Warren, D. Vlahov et al., “Design and baseline participant characteristics of the human immunodeficiency virus Epidemiology Research (HER) study: a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus infection in US women,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 146, no. 6, pp. 459–469, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Hildesheim, M. H. Schiffman, P. E. Gravitt et al., “Persistence of type-specific human papillomavirus infection among cytologically normal women,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 169, no. 2, pp. 235–240, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. B. Moscicki, S. Shiboski, J. Broering et al., “The natural history of human papillomavirus infection as measured by repeated DNA testing in adolescent and young women,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 277–284, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. J. Jamieson, A. Duerr, R. S. Klein et al., “Longitudinal analysis of bacterial vaginosis: findings from the HIV epidemiology research study,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 656–663, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Greenland, J. Pearl, and J. Robins, “Causal diagrams for epidemiologic research,” Epidemiology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 37–48, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. A. Kahn, D. Lan, and R. S. Kahn, “Sociodemographic factors associated with high-risk human papillomavirus infection,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 87–95, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. “Guidelines for Using Antiretroviral Agents Among HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents, Recommendations of the Panel on Clinical Practices for Treatment of HIV Infection,” May 2002.
  27. V. Redondo-Lopez, C. Meriwether, C. Schmitt, M. Opitz, R. Cook, and J. D. Sobel, “Vulvovaginal candidiasis complicating recurrent bacterial vaginosis,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 51–53, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus