Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2012, Article ID 727248, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/727248
Research Article

In Vitro Anti-Candida Activity of Lidocaine and Nitroglycerin: Alone and Combined

1Health Sciences Research Center (CICS), Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Av. Infante D. Henrique, Covilhã, Portugal
2Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Hospital Center Cova da Beira, Covilhã, Portugal
3Women and Child Health Department, Hospital Center Cova da Beira, Covilhã, Portugal

Received 9 February 2012; Accepted 19 March 2012

Academic Editor: Secondo Guaschino

Copyright © 2012 Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. M. de Oliveira, A. S. Cruz, A. F. Fonseca et al., “Prevalence of Candida albicans in vaginal fluid of asymptomatic Portuguese women,” Journal of Reproductive Medicine for the Obstetrician and Gynecologist, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 41–42, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. A. Mårdh, N. Novikova, and E. Stukalova, “Colonisation of extragenital sites by Candida in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candiosis,” International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 110, no. 10, pp. 934–937, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. A. Mårdh, A. G. Rodrigues, M. Genç, N. Novikova, J. Martinez-De-Oliveira, and S. Guaschino, “Facts and myths on recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis—a review on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, pathogenesis and therapy,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 522–539, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. D. Sobel, “Vulvovaginal candidosis,” The Lancet, vol. 369, no. 9577, pp. 1961–1971, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. Hurley and J. De Louvois, “Candida vaginitis,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 55, no. 647, pp. 645–647, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. B. Foxman, J. V. Marsh, B. Gillespie, and J. D. Sobel, “Frequency and response to vaginal symptoms among white and African American women: results of a random digit dialing survey,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 1167–1174, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Ferrer, “Vaginal candidosis: epidemiological and etiological factors,” International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, vol. 71, supplement 1, pp. S21–S27, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  8. W. Mendling and C. Seebacher, “Guideline for vulvovaginal candidiasis. 6 November 2002 status. Professional Society of Infections and Infection Immunology of the German Society of gynecology and obstetrics and German Language Mycologic Society e.V,” Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 149–152, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. G. Donders, G. Bellen, and W. Mendling, “Management of recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis as a chronic illness,” Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 306–321, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  10. D. Ray, R. Goswami, U. Banerjee et al., “Prevalence of Candida glabrata and its response to boric acid vaginal suppositories in comparison with oral fluconazole in patients with diabetes and vulvovaginal candidiasis,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 312–317, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. D. Sobel, P. S. Kapernick, M. Zervos et al., “Treatment of complicated Candida vaginitis: comparison of single and sequential doses of fluconazole,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 185, no. 2, pp. 363–369, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Pina-Vaz, A. G. Rodrigues, F. Sansonetty, J. Martinez-De-Oliveira, A. F. Fonseca, and P. A. Mardh, “Antifungal activity of local anesthetics against Candida species,” Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 8, no. 3-4, pp. 124–137, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. A. Pauli, “Anticandidal low molecular compounds from higher plants with special reference to compounds from essential oils,” Medicinal Research Reviews, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 223–268, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Palmeira-de-Oliveira, M. P. Ribeiro, R. Palmeira-de-Oliveira et al., “Anti-Candida activity of a chitosan hydrogel: mechanism of action and cytotoxicity profile,” Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 322–327, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  15. V. M. Barodka, E. Acheampong, G. Powell et al., “Antimicrobial effects of liquid anesthetic isoflurane on Candida albicans,” Journal of Translational Medicine, vol. 4, p. 46, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Rodrigues, C. Pina Vaz, A. F. Fonseca, J. M. de Oliveira, and H. Barros, “In vitro effect of local anesthetics on Candida albicans germ tube formation,” Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 193–197, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. J. J. Tjandra, J. J. Y. Tan, J. F. Lim, C. Murray-Green, M. L. Kennedy, and D. Z. Lubowski, “Rectogesic (glyceryl trinitrate 0.2%) ointment relieves symptoms of haemorrhoids associated with high resting anal canal pressures,” Colorectal Disease, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 457–463, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Yakoot and M. A. Salaam, “Study of efficacy and safety of a new local cream ("healer") in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. A prospective, randomized, single-blind, comparative study,” Arquivos de Gastroenterologia, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 179–182, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. C. Odds, Candidosis of the Genitalia. Candida and Candidosis. A Review and Bibliography, Bailliere Tindall, London, UK, 1988.
  20. CLSI, “Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts; approved standard-third edition,” CLSI document M27-A3, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, Pa, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  21. E. Canton, J. Peman, A. Viudes, G. Quindos, M. Gobernado, and A. Espinel-Ingroff, “Minimum fungicidal concentrations of amphotericin B for bloodstream Candida species,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 203–206, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  22. S. C. Vitale, J. Afeltra, and E. Dannaoui, “Antifungal combinations,” in Antifungal Agents: Methods and Protocols, E. J. Ernst and P. D. Rogers, Eds., p. 118, Humana Press, Memphis, Tenn, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar