Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2012, Article ID 917059, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/917059
Research Article

Incidence of Pregnancy after Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa: A Retrospective Clinical Cohort Analysis

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
2Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
3Clinical HIV Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
4Right to Care, Johannesburg, South Africa

Received 7 February 2012; Accepted 20 April 2012

Academic Editor: Deborah Cohan

Copyright © 2012 Daniel Westreich et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. UNAIDS, “2009 AIDS epidemic update,” http://www.unaids.org/en/dataanalysis/epidemiology/2009aidsepidemicupdate/.
  2. S. O. Mepham, R. M. Bland, and M. L. Newell, “Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-rich and -poor settings,” An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 118, no. 2, pp. 202–218, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. UNAIDS/WHO, “AIDS Epidemic Update 2007,” Tech. Rep., Geneva, Switzerland, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  4. A. E. Pettifor, H. V. Rees, I. Kleinschmidt et al., “Young people's sexual health in South Africa: HIV prevalence and sexual behaviors from a nationally representative household survey,” AIDS, vol. 19, no. 14, pp. 1525–1534, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Q. A. Karim, A. B. M. Kharsany, J. A. Frohlich et al., “Stabilizing HIV prevalence masks high HIV incidence rates amongst rural and urban women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 40, no. 4, Article ID dyq176, pp. 922–930, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. Myer, R. J. Carter, M. Katyal, P. Toro, W. M. El-Sadr, and E. J. Abrams, “Impact of antiretroviral therapy on incidence of pregnancy among HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa: a cohort study,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 7, no. 2, Article ID e1000229, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. WHO, “Towards universal access. Scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector,” Progress Report, September 2010, http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/2010progressreport/.
  8. M. S. Cohen, Y. Q. Chen, M. McCauley et al., “Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 365, no. 6, pp. 493–505, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. French and P. Brocklehurst, “The effect of pregnancy on survival in women infected with HIV: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 105, no. 8, pp. 827–835, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. MacCarthy, F. Laher, M. Nduna, L. Farlane, and A. Kaida, “Responding to her question: a review of the influence of pregnancy on HIV disease progression in the context of expanded access to HAART in sub-Saharan Africa,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. S66–S71, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Westreich, S. R. Cole, S. Nagar, M. Maskew, C. van der Horst, and I. Sanne, “Pregnancy and virologic response to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa,” PLoS One, vol. 6, no. 8, Article ID e22778, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. I. M. Sanne, D. Westreich, A. P. Macphail, D. Rubel, P. Majuba, and A. Van Rie, “Long term outcomes of antiretroviral therapy in a large HIV/AIDS care clinic in urban South Africa: a prospective cohort study,” Journal of the International AIDS Society, vol. 12, article 38, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  13. M. P. Fox, M. Maskew, A. P. Macphail et al., “Cohort profile: the Themba Lethu clinical cohort, Johannesburg, South Africa,” International Journal of Epidemiology. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. S. B. Brogly, M. J. Abzug, D. H. Watts et al., “Birth defects among children born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected women: pediatric AIDS clinical trials protocols 219 and 219C,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 721–727, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. M. Knapp, S. B. Brogly, D. G. Muenz et al., “Prevalence of congenital anomalies in infants with in utero exposure to antiretrovirals,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 164–170, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. Ford, L. Mofenson, K. Kranzer et al., “Safety of efavirenz in first-trimester of pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of outcomes from observational cohorts,” AIDS, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1461–1470, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Westreich, D. Rubel, P. Macdonald et al., “Pregnancy, efavirenz, and birth outcomes in Johannesburg, South Africa,” in Proceedings of the 17th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 2010.
  18. D. Westreich, D. Evans, C. Firnhaber, P. Majuba, and M. Maskew, “Prevalent pregnancy, biological sex, and virologic response to antiretroviral therapy,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. B. Sha, C. Tierney, S. Cohn et al., “Postpartum viral load rebound in HIV-1-infected women treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy: AIDS clinical trials group protocol A5150,” HIV Clinical Trials, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 9–23, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. W. A. Ray, “Evaluating medication effects outside of clinical trials: new-user designs,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 158, no. 9, pp. 915–920, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. R. Schwartz, S. H. Mehta, T. E. Taha, H. V. Rees, F. Venter, and V. Black, “High pregnancy intentions and missed opportunities for patient-provider communication about fertility in a south african cohort of HIV-positive women on antiretroviral therapy,” AIDS and Behavior, pp. 1–10, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. M. Robins, “Data, design, and background knowledge in etiologic inference,” Epidemiology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 313–320, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Moodley, R. Pattinson, C. Baxter, S. Sibeko, and Q. Abdool Karim, “Strengthening HIV services for pregnant women: an opportunity to reduce maternal mortality rates in Southern Africa/sub-Saharan Africa,” An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 118, no. 2, pp. 219–225, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus