Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1040984, 4 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1040984
Research Article

A Comparison of Colorimetric Assessment of Vaginal pH with Nugent Score for the Detection of Bacterial Vaginosis

1Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, DE, USA
2KLE University Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum, Karnataka, India
3S. Nijalingappa Medical College and HSK Hospital and Research Centre, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India
4Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Matthew K. Hoffman

Received 6 October 2016; Revised 27 December 2016; Accepted 9 January 2017; Published 15 February 2017

Academic Editor: Bryan Larsen

Copyright © 2017 Matthew K. Hoffman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. O. Eckert, “Clinical practice. Acute vulvovaginitis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 355, no. 12, pp. 1244–1252, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. M. A. Klebanoff, S. L. Hillier, R. P. Nugent et al., “Is bacterial vaginosis a stronger risk factor for preterm birth when it is diagnosed earlier in gestation?” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 192, no. 2, pp. 470–477, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. S. L. Hillier, R. P. Nugent, D. A. Eschenbach et al., “Association between bacterial vaginosis and preterm delivery of a low-birth-weight infant. The Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 333, no. 26, pp. 1737–1742, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. J. E. Allsworth and J. F. Peipert, “Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis: 2001–2004 national health and nutrition examination survey data,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 114–120, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. R. F. Lamont, J. D. Sobel, R. A. Akins et al., “The vaginal microbiome: new information about genital tract flora using molecular based techniques,” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 118, no. 5, pp. 533–549, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. Hardy, V. Jespers, N. Dahchour et al., “Unravelling the bacterial vaginosis-associated biofilm: a multiplex Gardnerella Vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae fluorescence in situ hybridization assay using peptide nucleic acid probes,” PLOS ONE, vol. 10, no. 8, Article ID e0136658, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. E. Tolosa, S. Chaithongwongwatthana, S. Daly et al., “The International Infections in Pregnancy (IIP) study: variations in the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and distribution of morphotypes in vaginal smears among pregnant women,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 195, no. 5, pp. 1198–1204, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Z. Mengistie, Y. Woldeamanuel, D. Asrat, and M. Yigeremu, “Comparison of clinical and gram stain diagnosis methods of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women in Ethiopia,” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 2701–2703, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. J. S. Huppert, E. A. Hesse, M. C. Bernard, J. R. Bates, C. A. Gaydos, and J. A. Kahn, “Accuracy and trust of self-testing for bacterial vaginosis,” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 400–405, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. R. Hemalatha, B. A. Ramalaxmi, E. Swetha, N. Balakrishna, and P. Mastromarino, “Evaluation of vaginal pH for detection of bacterial vaginosis,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 138, no. 3, pp. 354–359, 2013, http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3818598&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract. View at Google Scholar
  11. R. P. Nugent, M. A. Krohn, and S. L. Hillier, “Reliability of diagnosing bacterial vaginosis is improved by a standardized method of gram stain interpretation,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 297–301, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  12. “Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 1–137, 2015, https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/tg-2015-print.pdf.
  13. E. M. McClure, C. L. Bose, A. Garces et al., “Global network for women’s and children’s health research: a system for low-resource areas to determine probable causes of stillbirth, neonatal, and maternal death,” Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology, vol. 1, no. 1, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. A. G. Rouse, K. M. Gil, and K. Davis, “Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in the pregnant patient in an acute care setting,” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 279, no. 4, pp. 545–549, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. R. M. Brotman, M. A. Klebanoff, T. R. Nansel et al., “Bacterial vaginosis assessed by gram stain and diminished colonization resistance to incident gonococcal, chlamydial, and trichomonal genital infection,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 202, no. 12, pp. 1907–1915, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. X. Zhou, C. J. Brown, Z. Abdo et al., “Differences in the composition of vaginal microbial communities found in healthy Caucasian and black women,” The ISME Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 121–133, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. K. C. Anukam, E. O. Osazuwa, I. Ahonkhai, and G. Reid, “Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota of women attending a reproductive health care service in Benin City, Nigeria,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 59–62, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. J. Meis, M. Klebanoff, E. Thom et al., “Prevention of recurrent preterm delivery by 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 24, pp. 2379–2385, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. W. W. Andrews, J. C. Hauth, and R. L. Goldenberg, “Infection and preterm birth,” American Journal of Perinatology, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 357–366, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. G. G. Donders, K. Van Calsteren, G. Bellen et al., “Predictive value for preterm birth of abnormal vaginal flora, bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis during the first trimester of pregnancy,” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 116, no. 10, pp. 1315–1324, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. C. Hauth, C. MacPherson, J. Carey et al., “Early pregnancy threshold vaginal pH and Gram stain scores predictive of subsequent preterm birth in asymptomatic women,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 188, no. 3, pp. 831–835, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar