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IET Nanobiotechnology publishes original research and review articles in the field of nanobiotechnology at the molecular and submolecular levels.
IET Nanobiotechnology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Cancer Vaccines Designed Based the Nanoparticle and Tumor Cells for the Treatment of Tumors: A Perspective
Cancer vaccines based on tumor cell components have shown promising results in animal and clinical studies. The vaccine system contains abundant tumor antigen components, which can activate the immune system by antigens. However, their efficacy has been limited by the inability of antigens delivery, which are the core components of vaccines, further fail to be presented and activation of effective cells. Nanotechnology offers a novel platform to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor-associated antigens and deliver them to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) more efficiently. In addition, nanotreatment of tumor cells derivate active ingredients could also help improve the effectiveness of cancer vaccines. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the development of cancer vaccines by the combination of nanotechnology and tumor-based ingredients, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, metallic nanoparticles, virus-like particles and tumor cells membrane, tumor lysate, and specific tumor antigens. These nanovaccines have been designed to increase antigen uptake, prolong antigen presentation, and modulate immune responses through codelivery of immunostimulatory agents. We also further discuss challenges and opportunities in the clinical translation of these nanovaccines.
Enhancement of Therapeutic Potential of Oncolytic Virus with Homologous Tumor Cell Membranes for Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Conventional therapies often provide limited success, necessitating the need for novel therapeutic strategies. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are a class of viruses that specifically target and kill cancer cells while leaving normal cells unharmed. These viruses have shown promise in the treatment of various cancers, including pancreatic cancer. However, their use in clinical settings has been limited by several factors. Their inability to efficiently infect and kill tumor cells. To overcome this limitation, a cell membrane-coated oncolytic virus was developed. However, the necessity of homologous and nonhomologous tumor cell membranes for their function has not yet been proven. This novel virus displayed increased infectivity and killing activity against tumor cells compared to nonhomologous tumor cell membranes and noncoated viruses. We believe that the homologous tumor cell membranes-coated OVs can enhance the therapeutic potential for pancreatic cancer therapy.
Application of an Antibacterial Coating Layer via Amine-Terminated Hyperbranched Zirconium–Polysiloxane for Stainless Steel Orthodontic Brackets
The massive growth of various microorganisms on the orthodontic bracket can form plaques and cause diseases. A novel amine-terminated hyperbranched zirconium–polysiloxane (HPZP) antimicrobial coating was developed for an orthodontic stainless steel tank (SST). After synthesizing HPZP and HPZP-Ag coatings, their structures were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thickness measurement, contact angle detection, mechanical stability testing, and corrosion testing. The cell toxicity of the two coatings to human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) and human oral keratinocytes (hOKs) was detected by cell counting kit eight assays, and SST, HPZP@SST, and HPZP-Ag@SST were cocultured with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus mutans for 24 hr to detect the antibacterial properties of the coatings, respectively. The results show that the coatings are about 10 μm, and the water contact angle of HPZP coating is significantly higher than that of HPZP-Ag coating (). Both coatings can be uniformly and densely distributed on SST and have good mechanical stability and corrosion resistance. The cell counting test showed that HPZP coating and HPZP-Ag coating were less toxic to cells compared with SST, and the toxicity of HPZP-Ag coating was greater than that of HPZP coating, with the cell survival rate greater than 80% after 72 hr cocultured with hGFs and hOKs. The antibacterial test showed that the number of bacteria on the surface of different materials was ranked from small to large: HPZP@SST < HPZP-Ag@SST < SST and 800 μg/mL HPZP@SST showed a better bactericidal ability than 400 μg/mL after cocultured with S. aureus, E. coli, and S. mutans, respectively (all ). The results showed that HPZP coating had a better effect than HPZP-Ag coating, with effective antibacterial and biocompatible properties, which had the potential to be applied in orthodontic process management.
Radioprotective Effect of Selenium Nanoparticles: A Mini Review
Background and Objectives. Ionizing radiation is widely used in medical imaging for diagnosis and in radiotherapy for the treatment of various medical conditions. However, ionizing radiation can cause damage to healthy cells and tissues, leading to side effects and an increased risk of cancer and other diseases over time. This study aimed to evaluate the possible radioprotective effect of selenium nanoparticles against the damage caused by ionizing radiation. Materials and Methods. This study followed the PRISMA reporting guidelines to present the results. A comprehensive search was performed on electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Science Direct. Initially, 413 articles were retrieved. After removing duplicates and applying specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 articles were finally included in this systematic review. Results. The reviewed studies showed that selenium nanoparticles had anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. They effectively protected the kidneys, liver, and testicles from damage. Furthermore, there was evidence of efficient radioprotection for the organs examined without significant side effects. Conclusions. This systematic review emphasizes the potential advantages of using selenium nanoparticles to prevent the negative effects of ionizing radiation. Importantly, these protective effects were achieved without causing noticeable side effects. These findings suggest the potential role of selenium nanoparticles as radioprotective agents, offering possible therapeutic applications to reduce the risks related to ionizing radiation exposure in medical imaging and radiotherapy procedures.
Antibacterial Activity and Mechanisms of Action of Inorganic Nanoparticles against Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens: A Systematic Review
Foodborne disease outbreaks due to bacterial pathogens and their toxins have become a serious concern for global public health and security. Finding novel antibacterial agents with unique mechanisms of action against the current spoilage and foodborne bacterial pathogens is a central strategy to overcome antibiotic resistance. This study examined the antibacterial activities and mechanisms of action of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) against foodborne bacterial pathogens. The articles written in English were recovered from registers and databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Directory of Open Access Journals) and other sources (websites, organizations, and citation searching). “Nanoparticles,” “Inorganic Nanoparticles,” “Metal Nanoparticles,” “Metal–Oxide Nanoparticles,” “Antimicrobial Activity,” “Antibacterial Activity,” “Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens,” “Mechanisms of Action,” and “Foodborne Diseases” were the search terms used to retrieve the articles. The PRISMA-2020 checklist was applied for the article search strategy, article selection, data extraction, and result reporting for the review process. A total of 27 original research articles were included from a total of 3,575 articles obtained from the different search strategies. All studies demonstrated the antibacterial effectiveness of inorganic NPs and highlighted their different mechanisms of action against foodborne bacterial pathogens. In the present study, small-sized, spherical-shaped, engineered, capped, low-dissolution with water, high-concentration NPs, and in Gram-negative bacterial types had high antibacterial activity as compared to their counterparts. Cell wall interaction and membrane penetration, reactive oxygen species production, DNA damage, and protein synthesis inhibition were some of the generalized mechanisms recognized in the current study. Therefore, this study recommends the proper use of nontoxic inorganic nanoparticle products for food processing industries to ensure the quality and safety of food while minimizing antibiotic resistance among foodborne bacterial pathogens.
Thermosensitive Micelles Gel to Deliver Quercetin Locally for Enhanced Antibreast Cancer Efficacy: An In Vitro Evaluation
Although quercetin is low cytotoxicity to normal human cells, quercetin is effective against the growth of some tumors. Given the poor blood stability in vivo, insolubility, low delivery efficiency, and poor medicinal properties of quercetin, we developed a local drug delivery system comprising quercetin core’s polymer micelles and F127 hydrogel stroma. In vitro evaluation revealed that quercetin core’s polymer micelles have excellent antitumor activity and could inhibit the multiplication of 4T1 breast cancer cells through the apoptosis pathway. Meanwhile, a rheological study revealed that the quercetin core’s micelles gel possessed excellent properties of hydrogel formation and injectability of liquid preparation as a local drug delivery system after the quercetin core’s polymer micelles were loaded into the F127 hydrogel stroma. Our study findings indicated that the drug stability and stable release capacity of quercetin were vastly improved with the composite formulation of the micelles gel. This not only realized drug injectability but also drug storage in the semisolid form, which is a more comfortable and slower drug-releasing form that will eventually exert a proper therapeutic effect. In conclusion, quercetin micellar hydrogel system has better antitumor activity and excellent hydrogel properties.