International Journal of Agronomy
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Acceptance rate15%
Submission to final decision89 days
Acceptance to publication18 days
CiteScore2.300
Journal Citation Indicator0.550
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Article of the Year 2020

Organic Compounds: Contents and Their Role in Improving Seed Germination and Protocorm Development in Orchids

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 Journal profile

International Journal of Agronomy publishes research focused on crop production and management, crop science and physiology, crop disease and protection, and agroclimatology and soil science.

 Editor spotlight

Chief Editor, Dr. Othmane Merah, is an Associate Professor at the University of Toulouse Paul Sabatier, France.

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We currently have a number of Special Issues open for submission. Special Issues highlight emerging areas of research within a field, or provide a venue for a deeper investigation into an existing research area.

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Research Article

Effect of Endophytic Trichoderma sp. Strains on the Agronomic Characteristics of Ecotypes of Theobroma cacao L. under Nursery Conditions in Peru

Peru is one of the main producers of fine aroma native cacao, expanding its areas considerably in recent years, which makes it necessary to seek adequate management alternatives to obtain advantageous yields. The present work had the objective of testing the influence of Trichoderma sp. endophytic strains on the agronomic characteristics of ecotypes of Theobroma cacao L. under nursery conditions, Cajaruro district, Utcubamba, Amazonas, Peru. The Trichoderma strains evaluated were Trichoderma breve; T. harzianum; T. longibrachatum; T. afrojarzianum, and Trichoderma sp. which were inoculated on cocoa seedlings of ecotypes CCN51; TCHS565; and Nativo fino de aroma. The variables evaluated were chlorophyll indices (at 30, 45, 60, and 70 days after planting), percentage of endophyte colonization, root hair development, trichomes on stems, and agronomic characteristics (plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, root dry and fresh weight, root size, etc.). The results showed that the application of Trichoderma breve in the fine aroma native cocoa ecotype (T12) presented the highest chlorophyll index at 75 days after planting (DAP) with 43.53 ± 1.59 and 49.77 ± 2.42 for the apex and leaf base, respectively, with a percentage of colonization in the root hairs of 66.67%, and with better characteristics for the number of leaves with 12.00 ± 3.46. T12 showed positive influences for plant height, leaf number, and chlorophyll index. Treatments based on T. harzianum + CCN51 (T5) and T. afroharzianum + TSHS565 (T6) showed 100% colonization of the root hairs and trichomes on stems. Endophytic Trichoderma fungi are an alternative for organic production of fine aroma cocoa in Peru, improving the agronomic characteristics of the crop.

Research Article

Effects of Conservation Agriculture and Conventional Tillage on the Soil Physicochemical Properties and Household Income in Southern Ethiopia

In Ethiopia, soil degradation has been ongoing for centuries and caused the population to be food insecured. To cope with the challenges of soil fertility loss and related stress, various indigenous reclamation practices have been developed and implemented by local smallholder farmers. However, the contributions of indigenous soil management in augmenting soil quality and crop productivity were not well studied. This study selected two neighboring districts, Derashe and Arba Minch Zuriya, with different indigenous soil management practices. The Derashe people as an adaptation strategy designed indigenous soil management, locally known as Targa-na-Potayta with zero tillage, and mixed/rotational cropping. However, in the neighboring Arba Minch Zuriya district, smallholder farmers use conventional tillage using animal power. Representative soil samples were collected from selected four adjacent kebeles of the two districts. Eight farm plots per kebele were selected and a total of 32 composite samples were collected following a zigzag pattern to the depth of 30 cm. Bulk density (BD), field capacity (FC), permanent wilting point (PWP), particle size, soil textural classes, power of hydrogen (pH), cation exchange capacity (CEC), available potassium (Av. K), available phosphorous (Av. P), total nitrogen (TN), exchangeable bases (Na, Mg, Ca, and K), and soil organic carbon (OC) were analyzed. To assess crop production and income, a total of 392 household heads were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using an independent sample t-test. The results showed, soils under indigenous management, clay content was 53.74 ± 2.68%, FC 47.8 ± 1.09%, AWHC 15.2 ± 0.37%, pH 8.02 ± 0.07, SOC 1.8 ± 0.02%, and sum of cations 68.2 ± 1.66 meq/100 g. The values in the tested parameters were statistically significant () and favor good soil management practice as compared to conventional tillage. Using the three consecutive cultivation seasons, CA and CT groups’ mean production from pooled annual crops was 81.28 and 51.03Q ha-1, respectively. CA and CT groups’ mean gross income from annual crops was 98,250.15 ETB ($2751.78) ha-1 and 71,099.48 ETB ($1993.4) ha-1, respectively. Considering the pooled three consecutive cultivation seasons, CA and CT groups’ income from annual + perennial crops was 93,405.29 ETB ($2870.69) ha-1 and 280,721.73 ETB ($8325.17) ha-1, respectively. CA and CT groups’ per annum income from annual + perennial crops was 49,672.86 ETB ($1444.82) ha-1 and 157,980.60 ETB ($4595.13) ha-1, respectively. To sustainably maximize the productivity of the land, conventional tillage practicing smallholder farmers need to integrate the indigenous soil management approach—Targa-na-Potayta. Besides, the benefits of Targa-na-Potayta as sustainable agricultural land management practice need to be scaled out with policy support.

Research Article

Morphological and Physiological Characterization of Cassava Genotypes on Dry Land of Ultisol Soil in Indonesia

Indonesia has a large cassava diversity, but the tolerant cultivars on drought areas have not been well recorded. Candidate mapping can begin with morphological and physiological characterization. This study aimed to map cassava’s genetic diversity, determining the key phenotype to distinguish genotypes, physiological adaptation, and high-yield candidates under environmental stress. A total of 29 genotypes were clustered into 5 groups. A specific group for genotype from same site was not found. The differences and relations among genotypes were very clear, demonstrating cassava’s genetic diversity in Indonesia. The key group characteristics are upward petiole orientation (G1), nine lobes (G2), prominent foliar scars (G3), winding lobe (G4), and elliptic-lanceolate (G5). A total of 19 genotypes had a number of storage root >10 storage roots, 20 genotypes had a weight of storage root >2 kg/plant, and 3 genotypes had >4 kg/plant. Morphological and physiological trait determination is relevant to contribute to high-yield cassava breeding in dry areas. The morphological characteristics of well-adapted plants were plant height, lobe characteristics, and petiole orientation, while the physiological traits were chlorophyll index, transpiration rate, and photosynthesis rate.

Research Article

Vulnerability of Agrobiodiversity and Agroforestry Settings to Climate Change in Gedeo Zone, Ethiopia

The study was carried out at the Gedeo zone aiming to investigate the vulnerability of agrobiodiversity and agroforestry settings to climate change in the district. Thus, the study was focused on evaluating crop diversity under different crop management practices and its distribution at the household level among different wealth classes and land use land cover change impact on agrobiodiversity and agroecosystems areas. Therefore, crop survey both from the home garden and crop field, the last 30 years’ data from five meteorological stations located in the district and the past 30 years’ Landsat satellite images at a 10-year interval within the same season was used. A total of 65 crop plant species with eleven major use categories have been recorded in the studied home gardens and crop fields. The crop plant species collected from both the home garden and crop field account for 57% and 38%, while the rest 5% were from the adjacent field. The land use and land cover map of the study area indicate that the largest part of the study area (108548.01 hectares) was covered by agroforestry, whereas the smallest portion of the district, about 975.15, 6457.41 and 12501.27 hectares of the area, was covered by bare land, cropland, and grassland, respectively. The remaining 20537.73 hectares (13.8%) of the district were covered with settlements. Crop species diversity is higher almost in the entire study site. However, crop species compositions were significantly variable among these study sites. The climatic data results indicated a reduction in average rainfall pattern in most of the stations and an increase in temperature within the employed time range.

Research Article

Post-Veraison Water Stress and Pruning Level on Merlot Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): Effects on Berry Development and Composition

The grapevine berry development and composition at harvest are major determinant of productivity and wine quality. The increase in grapevine productivity by applying proper pruning and watering may affect fruit traits of the grapevine development notably berry size, weight, and volume as well as the berry composition mainly the total soluble solids (TSSs), titratable acidity (TA), pH of the grapes, total anthocyanins, and phenolic content and concentration. In this context, this study aimed to explore the response of berry development and composition to the interactive effect of pruning level and post-veraison water stress. Four pruning levels (severe, standard, light, and minimal) in combination with four post-veraison water stresses (none, light, moderate, and intense) were tested. The interactive effect of pruning level and post-veraison water stress has significantly altered all parameters, except berry weight which was influenced by the main effect of the two factors. Generally, post-veraison water stress reduced berry volume, weight, yield, and TA, but increased the TSS, pH, total anthocyanins, and phenols. Increasing in the pruning level also reduced berry yield per vine, TSS, and pH, but increased the berry volume, weight, TA, total anthocyanins, and phenols. Specifically, the highest berry volume, weight, and TA were registered in severely pruned grapevines with adequate water supply. Conversely, the minimally pruned grapevines with intense water stress had the highest TSS and pH of grape juice. The total anthocyanins and phenols were advanced by the increment from minimal to severe pruning levels but depressed when the water stress extended from none to an intense level. In the other hand, the maximum total anthocyanins and phenols in terms of concentration and content were observed in severely pruned grapevines under intense water stress. Interestingly, higher berry yield per grapevine was scored in minimally pruned grapevines with adequate water supply, possibly due to the increased number of nodes per vine. TSS had a strong negative relationship with berry volume, weight, yield, and TA, while pH had a strong positive relationship with TSS. Total anthocyanins and phenols were also inversely correlated with berry yield per grapevine. The results showed that the combined effect of pruning levels and water stress is a powerful tool to balance berry development and composition. As Merlot is a typical red wine grapevine, it is important to increase the berry composition even though there could be a reduction in its berry development variables including berry yield per vine.

Research Article

Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles from Coriandrum sativum and Their Use as Fertilizer on Bengal Gram, Turkish Gram, and Green Gram Plant Growth

Plant growth and development rely on various factors, including mineral nutrients. Some are macronutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, whereas some are micronutrients like iron, magnesium, zinc, and a few vitamins. This experimental attempt was to check the stimulatory effect of zinc nanoparticles on pulse plant growth. The study was conducted on the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Coriandrum sativum leaves extract. The characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles was studied using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope technique (TEM). The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles as a fertilizer on pulses plant (Bengal gram, Turkish gram, and green grams) was studied in vitro. The seed germination rate, length of root and shoot, fresh weight, dry weight, and protein and chlorophyll content were measured in different media for assessment of zinc oxide nanoparticle’s growth stimulatory effects. The green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed with a size around 100 nm by transmission microscope technique. The germination rate of plants was 100% in MS media and MS media + nanoparticles. The present study found that the root length, shoot length, and weight were higher in MS media + nanoparticles followed by MS media, MS media only with nanoparticles, and MS media without zinc, respectively. It is found that the zinc oxide nanoparticles support seed germination and plant growth and also increase the protein and chlorophyll content. Significantly enhanced growth and development were evident in green gram and Turkish gram compared to that in Bengal gram in media treated with zinc oxide nanoparticles. The protein estimation results showed that the content was higher after 7 days in plants of Bengal gram (1.23 mg/ml), Turkish gram (1.19 mg/ml), and green gram (1.26 mg/ml) than that in roots and shoots. The application of MS media + ZnO nanoparticles results showed that chlorophyll content 12.6 mg/l was observed in other applications in the plant’s seedlings. In contrast, the absence of zinc decreases the germination rate, plant growth, chlorophyll, and protein content. This study confirms that the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles assessed from Coriandrum sativum leaves holds implication and should function as an active biofertilizer.

International Journal of Agronomy
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate15%
Submission to final decision89 days
Acceptance to publication18 days
CiteScore2.300
Journal Citation Indicator0.550
Impact Factor-
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2021, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.