Variability Assessment of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Genotypes Based on Their Qualitative TraitsRead the full article
International Journal of Agronomy publishes research focused on crop production and management, crop science and physiology, crop disease and protection, and agroclimatology and soil science.
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Role of Acacia seyal on Selected Soil Properties and Sorghum Growth and Yield: A Case Study of Guba Lafto District, North Wollo, Ethiopia
Acacia seyal is one of the multipurpose parkland agroforestry tree species in eastern and southern Africa. It is a common on-farm tree in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia, but information is limited on its effect on soil properties and sorghum growth and yield. The study was conducted to evaluate its effect on selected soil properties and sorghum growth and yield in Guba Lafto district of northern Ethiopia. Six isolated and closely comparable Acacia seyal trees growing on sorghum farms were purposely selected, and plots were marked under the canopy of trees with three radial distances (0–2 m, 2–4 m, and 4–6 m) and one outside of the tree canopy (10 m away from any tree). Soil samples from each distance zone were taken between 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm soil depths for soil property analysis. Four quadrates with 1 m2 at each distance zone in four directions were laid for sorghum growth and yield attribute valuation. The results showed that only total nitrogen (TN) was significantly higher () at the subsoil layer under the canopy compared to an open area, while other selected soil parameters were not affected by the tree species. Sorghum biomass yield () and grain yield () were significantly lower under the canopy of the trees than in the open area. Generally, Acacia seyal had little effect in improving soil properties and showed a negative effect on sorghum yield and growth. Further research on its effect under wide area coverage of parkland system should be performed to bring a radical shift on the intercropping farming system.
Growth, Yield, and Sugar Content of Different Varieties of Sweet Corn and Harvest Time
The demand for sweet corn has increased largely because of its superior tastes compared with common corn. This research was conducted to analyze the growth and yield and sugar content of sweet corn seed on different varieties and harvest times. This research was conducted in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, from April to August 2018. The research was designed under a split-plot design. The main plot consisted of planting systems (single row and twin-row), whereas subplots consisted of three varieties (Bonanza, Talenta, and Master Sweet) and three harvest times (65, 70, and 75 days after planting). Variables measured consisted of plant height, cob length, cob weight, estimation of cob weight per hectare, and sugar content. Significant varietal differences were observed in plant height, cob length, cob weight, and sugar content. Master Sweet variety had the greatest plant height and cob length, whereas Bonanza variety produced the greatest cob weight, cob weight per hectare, and sugar content. Harvest time at 75 days after planting (DAP) produced the greatest plant height in the twin-row system, cob diameter, cob weight, and cob weight per hectare, whereas that at 65 DAP had the greatest plant height in control and sugar content. The twin-row system produced the greatest cob weight per hectare (22.33 ton/ha). This study recommends the use of Bonanza variety and harvest at 65 DAP to produce the greatest sweet corn cob per hectare.
Growth and Yield of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott.) as Affected by Planting Distance
Taro, Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott., is a staple food for many people in Africa. Despite the numerous importance of the crop, it still remains an underutilized crop in Ghana with little information on many aspects of the crop, especially agronomic practices. This experiment was conducted to identify the effect of planting distance on growth and yield of two promising taro accessions. The experiment was laid out using the split-plot design arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications in which accessions (BL/SM/80 and BL/SM/16) were used as main plots and three planting distances (1 m × 1 m, 1 m × 0.75 m, and 1 m × 0.5 m) as subplots. Data were recorded on the 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th, 20th, 24th, and 28th week after planting (WAP) for growth parameters while yield data were taken at harvest. The results indicated that plant height (63.4 cm), petiole length (44.0 cm), number of leaves (4.7), leaf length (31.7 cm), and width (20.5 cm) were significantly () higher in closely spaced plants than widely spaced plants at 4 WAP and 8 WAP for petiole length (70.3 cm) and in the 28th WAP where there was an accession effect on leaf length and number of suckers/plant. The highest corm yield/plant (0.63 kg) and total corm yield/ha (11.7 t/ha) in both accessions were achieved by the medium plant spacing (1 m × 0.75 m) and lower plant spacing (1 m × 0.5 m), respectively. Accession BS/SM/80 recorded the highest total yield/ha of 13.0 t/ha for 1 m × 0.5 m plant spacing. The higher number of suckers (8.1) was recorded by higher spaced plants. From the study, it was seen that growth parameters correlated significantly and positively with yield. It is therefore recommended that farmers in the area and those in similar production areas use a spacing of 1 m × 0.5 m for optimum growth and yield.
Assessing Soil Nutrients Variability and Adequacy for the Cultivation of Maize, Cassava, and Sorghum in Selected Agroecological Zones of Cameroon
Access to information on soil nutrients status and variability is essential in understanding the potential of soils and their responsiveness to management interventions in agriculture. The current study evaluated soil nutrients status in selected agroecological zones (AEZs) of Cameroon and identified variations and their adequacy for maize (Zea mays L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)), and cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) production. A total of 163 soil samples were collected from surface (0–15 cm) layer for the determination of pH, organic matter (OM), estimated nitrogen release (ENR), sulphur (S), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), sodium (Na), boron (B), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), aluminium (Al), phosphorus (P), total exchangeable capacity (TEC), and base saturations. The results showed different degrees of variability in soil nutrients ranging from low to very high in all the AEZs. The soils in all the AEZs were consistently deficient in available phosphorus, sulphur, boron, and zinc in varying proportion and might be inadequate to supply cultivated maize, sorghum, and cassava with the nutrients needed to achieve optimal growth. The soils were also prone to Mg-induced K deficiency, which could limit the growth of maize, sorghum, or cassava. These results therefore suggest that management of inherent soil properties should be based on-site specific situations.
Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis in Yield and Yield-Related Components of Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L.) Accessions, at Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia
Many research works have been done on black cumin focusing on its nutritional and medicinal properties. But, there is inadequate information on the association of yield and yield-constituting traits of black cumin to improve its production. Therefore, correlation analysis was made on thirty-six black cumin accessions evaluated at Jimma in simple lattice design during 2016, to quantify the relationship between traits. The result of the analysis showed that seed yield ha−1 had positive and highly significant correlation with number of effective capsules (0.88), secondary branches (0.73), plant height (0.72), total branches (0.71), steam thickness (0.58), primary branches (0.52), tertiary branches (0.52), harvesting index (0.47), and biological yield (0.43). Path coefficient analysis revealed that harvesting index, biological yield, and number of effective capsules exerted high and favorable direct contribution to seed yield at phenotypic level, whereas harvesting index, biological yield, primary and tertiary branches, number of effective capsules, and stem thickness showed positive direct effect at genotypic level. The favorable direct effects of these traits on grain yield indicate that keeping other variables constant, improvement of these traits will increase black cumin yield. Therefore, these traits should be kept in mind in the future breeding program of black cumin.
Proline, Total Antioxidant Capacity, and OsP5CS Gene Activity in Radical and Plumule of Rice are Efficient Drought Tolerance Indicator Traits
The success of a plant breeding program is linked with the rapid screening of crop germplasm. In the following study, the germination stage of rice seeds has been examined for the rapid screening of drought-tolerant genotypes. The rice genotypes (10 drought tolerant, 5 moderately drought tolerant, and 5 drought susceptible) were sown in Petri dishes under control and osmotic stress of 15% PEG6000. Data were recorded after four days of sowing for the osmotic stress-induced change in imbibition rate, speed of germination, radical and plumule length, radical and plumule total fresh and dry weight, proline contents, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde level in radical and plumule of seeds. Moreover, the change in expression of OsP5CS gene was also recorded in one of each drought tolerant, moderately drought tolerant, and drought susceptible genotypes. Under osmotic stress, the level of proline, total antioxidant capacity, and the expression of OsP5CS were increased in drought-tolerant genotypes as compared to moderately drought tolerant and drought susceptible genotypes. While, the change in imbibition rate, speed of germination, radical and plumule length, and fresh and dry weight were not symmetrical in drought tolerant, moderately drought tolerant, and drought susceptible genotypes. In short, the symmetrical change in proline, total antioxidant capacity, and expression of OsP5CS gene within radical and plumule of drought tolerant, moderately drought tolerant, and drought susceptible genotypes can help rapid screening of drought-tolerant rice genotypes.