Weed Control in Dicamba-Resistant Soybean with Glyphosate/Dicamba Applied at Various Doses and TimingsRead the full article
International Journal of Agronomy publishes research focused on crop production and management, crop science and physiology, crop disease and protection, and agroclimatology and soil science.
International Journal of Agronomy maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors expert and up-to-date in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Effect of Integrated Technologies on Production and Productivity of Pearl Millet in the Dryland Areas of Wag Himira Administrative Zone, Eastern Amhara, Ethiopia
Production of pearl millet with yield improvement would have a direct impact on the drought-prone areas of Ethiopia since pearl millet is drought tolerant and early maturing with high water use efficiency. An experiment was conducted to study the performance of pearl millet under different technologies in 2013 and 2014 main cropping seasons at the main site of the research center, Aybra, with the objective of evaluating and identifying appropriate combinations of technologies that enhance the production of pearl millet in the study area. About fourteen integrated technologies were applied in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The analysis was done by using SAS software version 9.1, and means were separated through the Duncan multiple range test. Results of analysis of variance showed that yield-related traits of pearl millet were significantly influenced by the integration of technologies in the 2013 cropping season. According to the results, the maximum yield (3084 kg ha−1) was recorded with the application of the treatment combination of recommended fertilizer application + seed primming + tie ridging, while the minimum was recorded (919 kg ha−1) in the treatment combination of microdose application of fertilizer + primed seed + intercropping of pearl millet with mung bean. In the case of the 2014 cropping season, the highest grain yield (3687 kg ha−1) was recorded with the treatment combination of microdose fertilizer application + primed seed + tie ridging + intercropping of pearl millet with mung bean, whereas the lowest grain yield (2115 kg ha−1) was recorded in the treatment combination of no fertilizer application + primed seed + flat bed. Based on the results of the current investigation, it could be recommended that using technology integration of microdose, tied ridge, primed seed, and intercropping of pearl millet with mung bean is better to attain maximum yield in the study area and similar agroecologies.
Optimizing Irrigation Water and N Levels for Higher Yield and Reduced Blossom End Rot Incidence on Tomato
This study was conducted during 2018/19 under drip irrigation in the dry season to examine the effect of irrigation and N levels on yield, economic performance, and incidence of blossom end rot (BER) on tomato. A 3 × 4 factorial design with subdivided plots was implemented. Three irrigation levels (50%, 75%, and 100% ETc) were randomly assigned in the main plots and four N levels (0, 46, 92, and 138 kg ha−1) to the subplots. Climate data were imported into AquaCrop model climate dataset for determining irrigation water amount and irrigation scheduling. Irrigation scheduling was determined using the FAO AquaCrop model. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using GenStat software. There was significant interaction effect of irrigation and N levels on yield, yield parameters, and BER incidence on tomato. Highest fruit diameter and fruit length were attained from the combined application of 75% ETc and 138 kg N ha−1. Besides, maximum fruits per plant and marketable yield were obtained under combined use of 100% ETc with 138 kg N ha−1 and 75% ETc with 92 kg N ha−1, respectively, whereas lowest yield performance was recorded when 50% ETc is coupled with 0 kg N ha−1. However, highest (21.91%) and lowest (7.03%) BER incidence was found under the combined use of 50% ETc and 0 kg N ha−1 100% ETc and 92 kg N ha−1, respectively. The economic analysis revealed that application of 46 kg N ha−1 was economically feasible irrespective of the irrigation water levels.
Using a Participatory Approach and Legume Integration to Increase the Productivity of Early Maturing Maize in the Nigerian Sudan Savannas
Drought, infestation of cereal crops by the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, and poor soil fertility are the major constraints to maize production by smallholder farmers in the Sudan savannas of northern Nigeria. Four innovation platforms (IPs) were therefore established in 2008 in the Sudan savanna (SS) agroecological zone of northern Nigeria to create a stakeholder forum to address these identified food production challenges in the target areas. The IPs comprised researchers from Bayero University, Kano; Institute for Agricultural Research, Zaria; International Institute of Tropical Agriculture; state and local government extension programs in Kano and Katsina states; input and output dealers; community-based organisations; and media organisations in the two states. The current study reports on the effects of legume integration on maize performance in farmer fields and the adoption of Striga management technologies introduced in the IPs over a four-year period. The deployment of drought- Striga-tolerant and early-maturing maize varieties along with legume rotation reduced Striga infestation by 46–100% when cowpea was rotated with maize, 80–97% when groundnut was rotated with maize, and 59–94% when soybean was rotated with maize. Grain yield of maize increased by 63–88% when cowpea was rotated with maize, 69–128% when groundnut was rotated with maize, and 9–133% when soybean was rotated with maize. Participatory and detailed questionnaire-based adoption surveys showed high adoption of improved maize varieties, five years after program interventions. The maize variety 99EVDT-W-STR C0 was the most popular among all the IPs because it is early maturing, Striga-resistant, and drought-tolerant. The high maize yields and high adoption rates suggest that the IP approach was effective in disseminating maize technologies.
Influence of Tropical Climate Parameters on Properties of Acid Sulfate Soils for Sustainable Oil Palm Cultivation
To promote effective oil palm plantation and environmental sustainability, this research assessed influence of climatic parameters on physicochemical properties of Thai acid sulfate soils (ASSs). ASSs under oil palm planting areas (Topsoil: Ap, Subsoil-1: Ap-60 cm, Subsoil-2: 60–100 cm, and Rootzone: sum of the three depth levels) and historical climate data in tropical savanna and tropical monsoon were investigated. Stepwise approach of multiple regression analysis from component defining variable of principal component analysis revealed that, in tropical savanna, daily solar radiation influenced clay content () in Topsoil, cation exchange capacity () in Subsoil-1, soil pH by water () in Subsoil-2, and silt content () in Rootzone. In tropical monsoon, daily solar radiation influenced exchangeable magnesium () in Subsoil-2, and exchangeable sodium () and silt content () in Rootzone. We concluded that daily solar radiation is the most influential climatic parameter on soil properties due to the transport of heat in soils, whereas particle size distribution is mostly influenced by climatic parameters due to their clay and silt fractions. OPP in ASSs under these climates should include management of water usage by using raised beds with irrigation canals, considering the rooting depth and depth of acidic horizon before applying fertilizer or amendment and liming along with integrated organic material management to raise soil pH.
Comparative Water Relations of Two Contrasting Date Palm Genotypes under Salinity
Salinity is a global agricultural problem, resulting in a significant reduction in the plantation areas and the crop yields, especially in arid and semiarid regions. The date palm is relatively salt-tolerant plant species, although the nature of salt tolerance is poorly understood. In this study, the salt stress responses of a salt-tolerant “Umsila” was compared with salt-susceptible “Zabad” date palm cultivars. Various physiological parameters, plant-water relations, and anatomical characteristics were analyzed. The results revealed that although salinity has negatively affected both cultivars, Umsila exhibited more stable photosynthesis than Zabad as reflected by the quantum yield (Qy) and the stomatal conductance (GS). Similarly, Umsila showed a more dynamic root system and efficient water relations than Zabad as demonstrated by the leaf water potential (LWP) and relative water content (RWC) during salinity. Umsila also accumulated greater abundances of soluble sugars, potassium (K+), calcium (Ca+2), proline, glycine betaine, and lignin and formed extra layers of Casparian strips in the root tissues when the seedlings were grown under saline conditions. Together, the results obtained from this study have offered some insights into the salt tolerance mechanisms in the date palm.
Effect of Water Quality on the Germination of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Seeds
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), a fruit vegetable consumed in several countries, especially in Africa, contributes to the fight against poverty and malnutrition due to its nutritional value. However, in Burkina Faso, its cultivation during the dry season that lasts about 9 months remains dependent on the availability of water resources. Thus, during this period that lasts about 9 months, because of this situation, okra producers are dealing with very diversified sources of water. However, the rehydration of seeds, which is the first step towards germination, depends mainly of the water. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the germinability of okra seeds under different irrigation waters in order to propose alternative sources. Thus, seeds of three ecotypes of okra (B2, G259, and L2) were germinated using five water types (dam water, wastewater from the sewage treatment plant (WTP), well water, dishwashing greywater, and distilled water). The results showed a significant influence of the water type on the germination velocity and the growth speed of the radicle. Indeed, using wastewater from the WTP, the germination velocity was very significantly lower than those obtained with the other sources (). Furthermore, seeds irrigated with WTP wastewater germinated less than other water types. Nevertheless, the germination rate obtained with dishwashing greywater (86.93 ± 0.14%), which is not used generally in agricultural production, is comparable to the rates obtained with other water types. Furthermore, the study showed a significant effect of the ecotype on the germination rate (). In addition, dam water significantly enhanced root growth compared to WTP (). In view of the results and because of water scarcity in Sahelian regions, dishwashing greywater, which is generally discarded, could be collected and used for the germination of okra.