Article of the Year 2020
Organic Compounds: Contents and Their Role in Improving Seed Germination and Protocorm Development in OrchidsRead the full article
International Journal of Agronomy publishes research focused on crop production and management, crop science and physiology, crop disease and protection, and agroclimatology and soil science.
International Journal of Agronomy maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors expert and up-to-date in the field of study.
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Evaluation of Different Rates of NPS on Growth and Yield Performances of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) in Cheha District, Gurage Zone, Ethiopia
A field experiment was conducted on 2019 growing season to evaluate effects of different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur on growth and yield of garlic under supplemental irrigation. A local variety, Tuma, was used and treated with six rates of NPS (T1 (0 : 0 : 0 kg/ha NPS) (control), T2 (19 : 38 : 7 kg/ha NPS), T3 (28.5 : 57 : 10.5 kg/ha NPS), T4 (47.5 : 76 : 14 kg/ha NPS), T5 (47.5 : 95 : 17.5 kg/ha NPS), and T6 (57 : 114 : 21 kg/ha NPS)). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design and replicated three times. Data were collected for days to 50% emergence, plant height, leaf number, leaf length, bulb weight, and total bulb yield. SAS version 9.2 was used to analyze the data. Means were separated using Fisher’s test at 5% level of significance. All parameters were significantly affected by the rates of NPS. The early days to 50% emergence (16) was recorded from T6 (57 : 114 : 21 kg/ha NPS), whereas the late days to 50% emergence was recorded from the control treatment (T1). Significantly highest leaf length (41.51 cm), leaf number (13.63), plant height (61.19 cm), bulb weight (39.44 g), and total bulb yield (14.91 ton ha−1) were recorded from T6 (57 : 114 : 21 kg/ha NPS). Therefore, from the result of this study, it can be concluded that the maximum total bulb yield of garlic was obtained with the application of 57 : 114 : 21 kg/ha NPS rate.
GGE Biplot Analysis for Stability and Adaptability of Maize Hybrids in Western Region of Indonesia
Hybrids that are stable or adaptable in a specific location for the western region of Indonesia are required to increase production of maize in Indonesia. The objectives of the study were (i) to select maize hybrids which are stable or adaptable in the western region of Indonesia and (ii) to determine the discriminant location for evaluating superior hybrids in the western region. Therefore, twelve maize hybrids were planted in different locations and seasons in the western region. Hybrids were selected based on GGE biplot analysis. The results showed that G9 and G10 were stable maize hybrids. G6 was the selected hybrid for the first megaenvironment; whereas, G3 was selected as the hybrid for the second megaenvironment. The L8 and L17 were the discriminant environment for evaluating hybrids in the western region of Indonesia. The high-yielding hybrids selected in this study should be broadly evaluated on-farm in order to disseminate for small holder farmers in Sumatera and Java islands.
Electromagnetic Field Improved Nanoparticle Impact on Antioxidant Activity and Secondary Metabolite Production in Anthemis gilanica Seedlings
Electromagnetic field (EMF) causes fundamental alternations in biological systems. In this study, we studied the effects of EMF on physiological responses and secondary metabolites production in SiO2 NP-treated Anthemis gilanica plants. The results indicated that EMF improved plant growth by inducing chlorophyll and carotenoid content, which led to enhanced biomass in SiO2 NP-treated plants. EMF enhanced adventitious roots in SiO2 NP-treated plants. EMF treatment improved the activity of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase in both control and SiO2 NP-treated plants. EMF and SiO2 NP treatments significantly declined hydrogen peroxide content in A. gilanica plants. Although protein content was reduced by SiO2 NP treatment, combined application of EMF with SiO2 NP caused a significant induction in protein content. Our results presented that EMF induced secondary metabolites accumulation such as flavonoid and phenol in SiO2 NP-treated A. gilanica plants. This work can open prospects for the production of the pharmaceutically high-value secondary metabolites.
Response of Crop Water Requirement and Yield of Irrigated Rice to Elevated Temperature in Bangladesh
In the changing climatic condition, temperature is the most vulnerable parameter and is projecting a trend of increase in the future. Crop growth and development process depend largely on air temperature. This study aims to determine the role of increasing air temperature in yield, crop water requirement (CWR), and other agronomic parameters of irrigated rice. Ceres-rice model associated in the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) was used in 15 different locations of Bangladesh. Grain yield, growth duration, and crop water requirement of widely cultivated irrigated rice (Boro rice) variety BRRI dhan28 were analysed in normal temperature and elevated air temperature by 1°C, 2°C, 3°C, and 4°C. The result revealed detrimental effect of elevated temperature on growth duration and grain yield. The estimated highest growth duration reduction of 30 days was found in Moulvibazar for 4°C temperature rise. The grain yield reduction was projected by 0–17%, 16–35%, 31–49%, and 39–61% from the normal condition if the seasonal mean temperature increased by 1°C, 2°C, 3°C, and 4°C, respectively. The country average crop water requirement was found to be 405 mm of which the highest 445 mm and the lowest 358 mm were recorded in Moulvibazar and Chandpur, respectively. The study revealed that the country average rice CWR reduced by 5%, 8%, 12%, and 17% over the normal condition for 1°C, 2°C, 3°C, and 4°C rising temperature, respectively. For 1°C temperature rise, BRRI dhan28 life span shortened by 6.4 days, grain yield reduced by 695 kg, and estimated CWR decreased by 14 mm. The projected declining CWR indicated that irrigated rice will require less irrigation water, but it will cause considerable yield loss under elevated temperature. Though elevated temperature will save huge irrigation water used in country-wide Boro rice cultivation, the crop developers need to introduce new heat-tolerant cultivar to minimize yield loss.
Method for Rapid Labeling of Waste Sludge from a Food Factory with 15N-Glycine and Evaluation of N Use Using Komatsuna (Brassica rapa Var. perviridis)
The waste sludge from food factories has rich nutrients and useful material for fertilizer or animal feed, but quick treatments and recycling of the waste sludge are difficult due to its higher water content. We have developed a rapid composting system to make sludge fertilizer using mix of waste sludge and shredded newspaper (Sludge Fertilizer Made by Paper Mixing Method, SF-PMM). The mixture was incubated in a box reactor, continuously aerated with warm air around 35°C, and changed to mature SF-PMM, in only two weeks. To search movement of N from the SF-PMM to plants, we developed a new method to label small amounts of SF-PMM with 15N-glycine. 50 L of wastewater from a food factory was incubated with 1 L of active sludge and 3 g of 15N-glycine (98 atom% 15N), and 175 g of labeled sludge was obtained in a day. This sludge was mixed with 25 g of newspaper chips, packed between two steel meshes, and placed at 20 cm depth in the reactor composting 200 kg of unlabeled sludge-paper mixture. Composting was restarted, and after about 7 days of reaction, 15N-labeled SF-PMM 7.03 atom% 15N was obtained. The surrounding unlabeled compost contained 4.0, 4.0, and 0.8% of N, P2O5, and K2O, respectively. C/N and pH were 10 and 7.4, respectively. Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was cultivated in a pot with 50 and 100 mg N of SF-PMM, and healthy plants were obtained as in the Control experiments containing 50 mg N ammonium sulfate. No growth inhibition was observed in these experiments. Even in 100 mg SF-PMM, excellent growth of the roots was observed. About 56% of the N in the plant was shown to come from 15N-SF-PMM, and about 6% of the total15N in the 15N-SF-PMM was also shown to be incorporated into the plant.
Effects of Trichoderma and Foliar Fertilizer on the Vegetative Growth of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Seedlings
Black pepper is a high nutrient-demanding crop; however, high application rates of the chemical fertilizer may give a negative impact on the environment and human health. Coapplication of the chemical fertilizer with biological fertilizers or biological agents is very important to support growth and high yield. This field experiment was carried out to study the effect of Trichoderma harzianum and foliar fertilization on the vegetative growth of black pepper. The study was conducted for 4 months. The research method was arranged in a factorial based on randomized block design (RBD). The first factor was the application of Trichoderma (50 g, 75 g, and 100 g per plant), and the second one was foliar fertilizers (1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, and without foliar fertilizer as the control). The treatments were repeated three times. The results showed that the application of both Trichoderma and foliar fertilizer affected the rate of shoot growth, the number of leaves, and the emergence time on black pepper seedlings under the nursery conditions. The application of 50 g/plant of Trichoderma and 1.5% of the foliar fertilizer resulted in 26% longer shoot length and 54% more leaves and accelerated the appearance of shoots 10 days earlier compared to without Trichoderma and the foliar fertilizer.