Effect of Intercropping Beans with Maize and Botanical Extract on Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) InfestationRead the full article
International Journal of Agronomy publishes research focused on crop production and management, crop science and physiology, crop disease and protection, and agroclimatology and soil science.
International Journal of Agronomy maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors expert and up-to-date in the field of study.
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Effectiveness of Water Management towards Soil Moisture Preservation on Soybeans
In this study, factorial randomized experiments were conducted in a controlled greenhouse environment to investigate an efficient and effective component of water management technology in increasing soybean yield. The soybeans were planted in polybags with 6 kg of Alfisol soil media and fertilizer. The bags were perforated with 16 holes at approximately 1 to 2 cm from the base and put into a water container. The container was immersed in water levels of 5 cm and 10 cm. The application of these immersions was carried out in four stages: 0 to 15 days after planting (DAP), 15 to 30 DAP, 30 to 45 DAP, and continued until harvest. Observations of growth were carried out on the greenness of leaves, plant height, leaf area, root length, and dry weight of plants, and soil water content was checked every two weeks. The yield measured after harvest consisted of the number of pods, the number of seeds/plants, weight of 100 seeds, and weight of seeds per plants. The water level had a significant effect on plant height, dry weight, leaf greenness, number of pods, and number of seeds/plants. The immersion stage has significant effects on plant height, harvest age, dry weight, leaf greenness, number of pods, and number of seeds/plants. Continuous immersion in a water level of 5 cm has shown the best yield on number of pods (20.81) and number of seeds per plant (162.94). This treatment increased seed yield (seed weight) approximately by 19.23% compared to the field capacity.
Introduction to the Integrated Nutrient Management Strategies and Their Contribution to Yield and Soil Properties
Alleviation of poverty and achievement of zero-hunger target and food security are significant challenges faced by agricultural planners worldwide. Improving many agronomic approaches, which have drastic effects on crop growth and yield, is urgently needed to report this aim. Replacement of a part of chemical fertilizers by organic manure through a simple technique of using minimum effective dose of sufficient and balanced quantities of organic and inorganic fertilizers in combination with specific microorganisms, called INM, has a bright solution in this area. Recently, several investigators reported that integrated use of chemical fertilizers with organic manure is becoming a quite promising practice not only for maintaining higher productivity but also for greater stability to crop production. In addition, INM acts as a source of energy, organic carbon, and available nitrogen for the growth of soil microbes and improvement of physical properties of soil, and also have great residual effect on subsequent crops. So, the key component of the INM goal is to reach the eco-friendly practice through the harmonious properties of both sources by making a combination that can be used for decreasing the enormous use of chemical fertilizers and accreting a balance between fertilizer inputs and crop nutrient requirement, maintaining the soil fertility, optimizing the level of yield, maximizing the profitability, and subsequently reducing the environmental pollution. Lastly, INM is a tool that can offer good options and economic choices to supply plants with a sufficient amount of nutrients in need and can also reduce total costs, create favorable soil physiochemical conditions and healthy environment, eliminate the constraints, safeguard the soil nutrient balance, and find safety methods to get rid of agriculture wastes.
Rice Cultivar Response to Florpyrauxifen-Benzyl When Applied with Imazethapyr and a Cytochrome P450 Inhibitor
Understanding cultivar responses to a new herbicide is crucial to determining appropriate herbicide use and management practices. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl is a new rice herbicide developed to control troublesome weeds in rice production. Little research has been conducted to characterize rice cultivar responses to florpyrauxifen-benzyl, and thus, a field experiment was conducted at the Pine Tree Research Station (PTRS) in 2017 and 2018 and at the Rice Research and Extension Center (RREC) in 2018 to determine rice cultivar tolerance to florpyrauxifen-benzyl as influenced by herbicide rate, the addition of imazethapyr, and rice growth stage. Another experiment was conducted in 2018 at PTRS and RREC to assess crop response when florpyrauxifen-benzyl at different rates is applied with and without malathion, a known cytochrome P450 inhibitor. Three cultivars were evaluated in both experiments: a long-grain variety “CL111,” a medium-grain variety “CL272,” and a long-grain hybrid “CLXL745.” Injury in the first experiment was higher when florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied at 60 g ae ha−1 than at the labeled rate of 30 g ha−1, with the most injury being 10% when averaged over growth stage at the time of application. Generally, applications made at the 3-leaf growth stage resulted in the most injury; however, this injury was at most 14%. Additionally, there was no reduction in grain yield for any cultivar, indicating florpyrauxifen-benzyl can be used safely in conjunction with imazethapyr in imidazolinone-resistant rice. In the second experiment, there was no more than 10% injury and no reduction in grain yield, with the addition of malathion not causing an increase in rice injury. Results from these experiments indicate florpyrauxifen-benzyl can be mixed with imazethapyr and the addition of malathion will not lead to increased risk for injury to rice.
Genetic Gain in Wheat Grain Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency at Different Nitrogen Levels in an Irrigated Hot Environment
Improved nitrogen use-efficient cultivars could be the most economically beneficial and environmentally friendly approach to reduce pollution associated with excessive N fertilization. The performance and genetic gain in grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of a historical set of 12 bread wheat cultivars released for a heat-stressed environment were investigated at four N levels (0 (N0), 43 (N43), 86 (N86), and 129 (N129) kg/ha) for two seasons. Averaged across seasons, increasing N level from N0 to N43, N86, and N129 resulted in yield increases ranging from 4−45%, 13–69%, and 34–87% at N43, N86, and N129, respectively. These yield increases were associated with increases in biomass (r = 0.86, ). Regressing grain yield of cultivars released during 1960 to 2006 against the year of release showed no trend at N0 and positive nonsignificant trends at N43;. however, significant positive trends were found at N86 and N129 with genetic gain rates of 12.65 and 15.76 kg ha−1 year−1, respectively. This gain was associated with progresses in harvest index (HI) at N43, N86, and N129 but not at N0. On the other hand, during the period from 1960 to 1990, the genetic gain in grain yield at N86 was 24.5 kg ha−1 year−1. Regressing NUE against the year of release showed significant linear trends at N86 and N129 (R2 = 0.511 and R2 = 0.477, respectively), but not at N43. The results indicate that breeders improved grain yield and NUE over 46 years under the heat-stressed environment of Sudan although the rate of increase in yield has been slowed down in recent years. Further improvement in NUE might require broadening the genetic diversity and simultaneous evaluation at low and high N levels.
The Effects of Biopesticide and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vanillae on the Nutrient Content of Binucleate Rhizoctonia-Induced Vanilla Plant
Binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR) fungi are essential for the germination of vanilla seeds. Chemical control of the soil-borne pathogen might adversely affect BNR. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Nicotiana tabacum extract biopesticides and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vanillae (Fusarium) on vanilla plant nutrient content induced by BNR. Materials and Methods. The research design was completely randomized design with two factors and three replications. The first factor was biopesticide (dosage of 0, 10, 20, and 30 ml/seedling), and the second factor was the application of Fusarium. Results. The increase in the nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content of vanilla was affected by biopesticides and Fusarium inoculation. Fusarium inoculation has no significant effect on nitrogen and phosphorus levels but significantly affects potassium levels. The biopesticide dosage is significant for nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The interaction of biopesticides with Fusarium inoculation did not significantly affect the parameters of nitrogen and phosphorus content, but significantly affected potassium content. Conclusion. The application of biopesticides and Fusarium inoculation after induction of BNR can increase nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content of vanilla plants.
Nutrient Release Pattern and Greenhouse-Grown Swiss Chard Response to Biochar Inoculated with Vermicast
A study was performed to assess nutrient release from biochar inoculated with solid vermicast (SVB), vermicast tea (VTB), deionized water (DWB), uninoculated biochar (Bioc), and Promix-BX (Pro-BX). The growth response of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) cv. Rhubarb chard was also assessed. Comparatively, nutrients were released slowly from treatments SVB and VTB compared to the other treatments. The rate of nutrient release determined by total dissolved solids and electric conductivity from the Pro-BX was the highest. The trend for the plant growth components, total leaf surface area and leaf fresh weight at first harvest, was Pro-BX > Bioc > DWB = SVB > VTB. The only treatment that increased total leaf area and leaf fresh weight at the second harvest by approximately 1.02- and 1.88-fold was VTB. Leaf fresh weight was significantly reduced by approximately 0.33-fold for DWB, 0.28-fold for Bioc, and 0.70-fold for Pro-BX but was not altered by SVB at the second harvest as compared to the first harvest. A 2-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA) biplot confirmed that treatment Pro-BX increased plant growth components at the first harvest only. The locations of SVB and VTB on the PCA biplot confirmed their efficacies, which led to increases in the plant growth components at the second harvest. Overall, the VTB adsorbed more nutrients onto its surface that were slowly released to enhance the Swiss chard cv. Rhubarb chard plant growth at the second harvest. Further studies should consider microbial activities.