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International Journal of Analytical Chemistry publishes research reporting new experimental results and chemical methods, especially in relation to important analytes, difficult matrices, and topical samples.
International Journal of Analytical Chemistry maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Determination and Pharmacokinetics of Omeprazole Enantiomers in Human Plasma and Oral Fluid Utilizing Microextraction by Packed Sorbent and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
In the present work, the determination of omeprazole (OME) enantiomers in oral fluid and plasma samples was carried out utilizing microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A chiral column with cellulose-SB phase was used for the first time for enantiomeric separation of OME with an isocratic elution system using 0.2% ammonium hydroxide in hexane-ethanol mixture (70 : 30, v/v) as the mobile phase. OME enantiomers were determined utilizing a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in positive ion mode (ESI+) monitoring mass transitions: m/z 346.3 ⟶ 198.0 for OME and m/z 369.98 ⟶ 252.0 for internal standard. The limits of detection and quantification of the present method for both enantiomers were 0.1 and 0.4 ng/mL, respectively. The method validation provided good accuracy and precision. The matrix effect factor was less than 5%, and no interfering peaks were observed. The interday precision values ranged from 2.2 to 7.5 (%RSD), and the accuracy of determinations varied from −9.9% to 8.3%. In addition, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of omeprazole enantiomers in healthy subjects after a single oral dose was investigated. (S)-Enantiomers showed higher levels than (R)-enantiomers throughout 24 h. It was found that the mean maximum concentrations of (R)- and (S)-omeprazole in plasma samples were about two times higher than in oral fluid.
Computer-Aided Rapid Establishment of Fingerprint of Xiaojin Capsule by HPLC
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulas have a significant clinical efficacy, and the fingerprint technology has been widely accepted to fully reveal the quality of TCM. Whereas, it is a great challenge to establish the fingerprint chromatogram which can fully reflect every single herb material in a short time. In this study, we used Xiaojin capsule (XJC) as a case and developed a rapid fingerprint method based on increasing the column temperature and flow rate simultaneously combined with computer-aided. First, the elution gradient was optimized based on the retention parameters and peak shape parameters of the four linear gradients, and then, the column temperature and flow rate were increased simultaneously to shorten the analysis time. Next, the standard fingerprint chromatogram of XJC, which can reflect every herb material, was generated. Finally, quality markers were screened through unsupervised cluster analysis and supervised orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis. Combining computer-aided with increasing column temperature and flow rate simultaneously can develop the rapid method for establishing HPLC fingerprint of XJC, which can fully reflect every single herb material and provide comprehensive quality control. The strategy for establishing HPLC fingerprint of TCM formula could be applied to other traditional Chinese medicine formulas and herbal medicine.
Establishment and Validation of a Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Tigecycline in Critically Ill Patients
Utilizing tigecycline-d9 as an internal standard (IS), we establish and validate a simple, effective, and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative measurement of tigecycline (TGC) in patient plasma. Acetonitrile was used as a precipitant to process plasma samples by a protein precipitation method. The analyte and IS were separated on an HSS T3 (2.1 × 100 mm, 3.5 μm) chromatographic column using isocratic program with a mobile phase comprising of 80% solvent A (water containing 0.1% formic acid (v/v) with 5 mM ammonium acetate) and 20% solvent B (acetonitrile) with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The mass spectrometer, scanning in multireaction monitoring (MRM) mode and using an electrospray ion source (ESI), operated in the positive-ion mode. The ion pairs used for quantitative analysis were m/z 586.4 ⟶ 513.3 and m/z 595.5 ⟶ 514.3 for TGC and the IS, respectively. The range of the linear calibration curve obtained with this approach was 50–5000 ng/ml. Intra- and interbatch precision for TGC quantitation were less than 7.2%, and the accuracy ranged from 93.4 to 101.8%. The IS-normalized matrix effect was 87 to 104%. Due to its high precision and accuracy, this novel method allows for fast quantitation of TGC with a total analysis time of 2 min. This approach was effectively applied to study the pharmacokinetics of TGC in critically ill adult patients.
An UPLC-MS/MS Method for Determination of Osimertinib in Rat Plasma: Application to Investigating the Effect of Ginsenoside Rg3 on the Pharmacokinetics of Osimertinib
Osimertinib is a novel oral, potent, and irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) for treatment of advanced T790M mutation-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer, which is commonly combined with ginsenoside Rg3 in clinic to enhance the efficacy and minimize adverse reactions. In the present study, a highly sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was established and validated for analysis of osimertinib in rat plasma according to US FDA guideline. Separation was performed on a C18 (2.1 × 50 mm, 2.6 μm) column using a gradient elution of ammonium formate (10 mM) with 0.1% formic acid buffer (A) and ACN (B) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Detection was carried out on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization in the MRM mode. The method was validated over a concentration range of 1–400 ng/mL for osimertinib. The intra- and interday accuracy and precision values were within ±15%. No significant degradation occurred under the experimental conditions in stability assays. There was a further investigation on the effects of multiple doses of ginsenoside Rg3 on the pharmacokinetics of osimertinib in rats for the first time. The results implied that osimertinib exhibited a slow absorption and moderate-rate elimination in rats following oral administration. Coadministeration with ginsenoside Rg3 (5 mg/kg, 7 days, i.g.) may have no effect on the pharmacokinetics of osimertinib in rats. The results provide a reference for the clinical concomitant medications of Rg3 and osimertinib.
Low-Vacuum Quadrupole Mass Filter Using a Drift Gas
Performing mass spectrometry in a low-vacuum environment can markedly reduce the cost, size, and power consumption of instrumentation by reducing the workload of the pumping system. Under a low-vacuum environment, ions in a quadrupole mass filter do not have sufficient kinetic energy in the axial direction to reach the detector for mass analysis. To resolve this problem and develop a mass spectrometer suitable for a low-vacuum environment, a mass analysis method is proposed where a drift gas is used to supply energy to the ions. A simulation model was constructed in COMSOL Multiphysics, and a simple experimental device was built to validate the proposed method. The simulation results showed that this method effectively solves these problems, and the obtained spectral peak was superior to that without drift gas flow regarding spectral peak intensity and width. The experimental results showed that the proposed method separated ions with different mass-to-charge ratios at a pressure of 20 Pa. This work provides a theoretical foundation for the development of low-vacuum mass spectrometry, which will promote portability, provide a lower threshold of use, and expand the fields of application for mass spectrometers.
Determination of Crizotinib in Mouse Tissues by LC-MS/MS and Its Application to a Tissue Distribution Study
Toxicity induced by crizotinib, a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a significant clinical issue during treatment. A tissue distribution study is required to explore the organs affected by this molecule. In this study, a simple liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of crizotinib in various mouse tissues. Mouse tissue homogenates were processed by protein precipitation with methanol, and apatinib was chosen as the internal standard. The analytes were separated on a Phenomenex Kinetex C18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) column with gradient elution using methanol and 0.3% formic acid water solution. Tandem mass spectrometric detection was conducted using multiple reaction monitoring via an electrospray ionization source in the positive mode. The monitored ion transitions were m/z 450.1 ⟶ 260.2 for crizotinib and m/z 398.2 ⟶ 212.0 for apatinib. The problem of the severe carryover effect was successfully resolved. The method was validated and applied to a tissue distribution study of crizotinib in mice, which was reported for the first time. The results of the study showed that the main target organs of crizotinib were the lung, liver, and spleen, and a high concentration of crizotinib was found in the gastrointestinal tract. This study offers a reliable method for quantifying crizotinib and provides a basis for further research on crizotinib toxicity.