Table 1: Application of LC-ICP-MS techniques in chromium, arsenic, antimony, and thallium speciation in water and sediment samples.

AnalytesAnalytical columnMobile phaseMethod of separation and detectionMatrixReferences

As3+, As5+, MMA, DMAHamilton PRP-X100
Dionex IonPac AS7, AG7
75 mM Na3PO4,
2.5–50 mM HNO3
HPLC-ICP-MSSurface water, mining water, underground water[54]

As3+, As5+, MMA, DMA, AB, ACWaters IC-Pak CM/D Waters Guard-Pak CM/DNaHCO3/Na2CO3, HNO3HPLC-ICP-MSWater[56]

As3+, As5+, MMA, DMA, ABHamilton PRP-X10020 mM NH4H2PO4HPLC-ICP-DRC-MSPolluted waters[81]

As3+, As5+Hamilton PRP X-100Na2CO3HPLC-ICP-MSSurface water[61]

As3+, As5+, MMA, DMADionex IonPac AS7HNO3HPLC-ICP-MSWaters[82]

As3+, As5+Wescan Anion-S C18EDTAHPLC-ICP-MSRiver waters[83]

As3+, As5+Waters IC-Pak A HCNaOH, KNO3HPLC-ICP-MSWater[58]

As3+, As5+Dionex IonPac AG12A/AS 12ADisodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, methanolHPLC-ICP-MSIron rich water samples[84]

As3+, As5+, MMA, DMAHamilton PRP X100NH4NO3HPLC-ICP-MSWater[62]

As3+, As5+, MMA, DMA, ABSupelcosil LC-SCXPyridine, NaHCO3, Na2CO3HPLC-ICP-MSAqueous extracts[85]

As3+, As5+, MMA, DMA, ABDionex IonPac AS7NH4H2PO4, NH4OHHPLC-ICP-MSWaters[86]

As3+, As5+Hamilton PRP X100CH3COOH, NH4NO3, EDTAHPLC-ICP-MSDrinking water[87]

As3+, As5+, MMA, DMA, AC, ABSpherisorb ODS/NH25 mM NaH2PO4,
5 mM Na2HPO4,

As3+, As5+, MMA, DMAHamilton PRP-X10010–200 mM NH4H2PO4HPLC-ICP-DRC-MSSediments[77]

As3+, As5+, MMA, DMA, AB, ACDevelosil
C30-UG-5, Chemcosorb
Sodium butanesulfonate, malonic acid, tetramethylammonium hydroxide,
metanol, ammonium tartrate
HPLC-ICP-MSEnvironmental samples[65]

As3+, As5+Dionex IonPac AG-7
Hamilton PRP-X100
10 mM HNO3HPLC-ICP-MSWater[33]

Sb3+, Sb5+, Hamilton PRP-X10020 mM EDTA, 2 mM KHPHPLC-ICP-MSWaters[64]

Sb3+, Sb5+, Hamilton PRP-X10010 mM EDTA, 1 mM phthalic acidHPLC-ICP-MSMoat water[68]

Sb3+, Sb5+, Hamilton PRP-X10020 mM EDTA, 2 mM KHPHPLC-ICP-MSMineral water[88]

Sb3+, Sb5+, TMSbCl2Hamilton PRP-X10020 mM EDTA, 2 mM KHPHPLC-HG-AFSSea water,[89]

Sb3+, Sb5+, TMSbO Hamilton PRP-X1002 mM phthalic acid
2 mM 4-hydroxybenzoic acid
HPLC-ICP-MSSurface water[69]

Sb3+, Sb5+, TMSbCl2CETAC ION-120
Dionex IonPac AS14
2 mM NH4HCO3, 1 mM tartaric acid, 1.25 mM EDTAHPLC-ICP-MSTap water[67]

Sb3+, Sb5+, TMSbCl2, TMS(OH)2Hamilton PRP-X100, Hamilton PRPX-200, Supelcosil LC-SCX, Hamilton PRP1, Phenomenex Intersil 5 ODSKH2PO4/K2HPO4 0.5–5 mM, KHCO3/K2CO3 1–50 mM, Pyridine, 2,6 dicarboxylic acid (PDCA): 5–20 mM EDTA,
5–50 mM HNO3, 1–4 mM Ethylenediamine
HPLC-ICP-MSEnvironmental samples[90]

Sb3+, Sb5+Synchropak Q3005 mM EDTA, 2 mM phthalic acidHPLC-ICP-MSTap water[66]

Sb3+, Sb5+, TMSbCl2Hamilton PRP-X100, Dionex IonPac AS4A-SC12 mM tetra-methylammonium hydroxide
3 mM tetra-methylammonium hydroxide
HPLC-ICP-MSEnvironmental samples[91]

Sb3+, Sb5+Dionex IonPac AS-71 mM Phtalic acid, 10 mM EDTANa2IC-ICP-MSWater and bottom sediments[49]

Tl1+, Tl3+Dionex IonPac CG12A0.015 M HNO3IC-ICP-MSWater[92]

Tl1+, Tl3+Dionex IonPac AG12A
HNO3, HClIC-ICP-MSWater[70]

Tl1+, Tl3+Dionex IonPac AS71.5 mM phtalic acid, 10 mM EDTA, 15 mM HNO3, 2 mM DTPAIC-ICP-MSWater, bottom sediments[44]

Cr3+, Cr6+, Se4+, Se6+Dionex IonPac AG-11
Dionex IonPac AS-11
20 Mm NaOHIC-ICP-DRC-MSSurface water, groundwater, tap waters[32]

Cr3+, Cr6+Waters Guard-Pak CM/D
Waters IC-Pak A
0.4–40 mM HNO3IC-ICP-DRC-MSSludge[55]

Cr3+, Cr6+Waters IC-Pak CM/D
Waters Guard-Pak CM/D
0.4–40 mM HNO3IC-ICP-DRC-MSWater[93]

Cr3+, Cr6+G3145A/101
30 mM NH4H2PO4IC-ICP-MSSludge[94]

Cr3+, Cr6+G3145A/101
20 mM NH4NO3IC-ICP-DRC-MSSaline water with a high content of Cl[95]

Cr3+, Cr6+Shodex RS-pak NN-814 4DP90 mM (NH4)2SO4
10 mM NH4NO3

Cr3+, Cr6+Prepared in the laboratory0.70 M HNO3IC-ICP-MSSeawater[97]

Cr3+, Cr6+Dionex IonPac CS52 mM PDCA + 2 mM NaHPO4 + 1 mM NaI + 5 mM CH3COONH4IC-ICP-MSDrinking water[98]

Cr3+, Cr6+Excelpak ICS-A231 mM EDTA-2NH4 + 10 mM H2C2O4IC-ICP-MSDrinking water, sludge[99]

Cr3+, Cr6+Dionex IonPac CS5PDCA + (NH4)2HPO4 + CH3COONH4 + NH4OH + NH4IIC-ICP-MSWater[100]

Cr3+, Cr6+Dionex IonPac CS5A40 mM MgSO4 + 30 mM HClO4IC-ICP-MSDrinking water, sludge[101]

Cr3+, Cr6+Dionex IonPac AG70.1 M NH4NO3 pH = 4 
0.8 M HNO3
IC-ICP-MSWater and bottom sediments[49]