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International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 2016, Article ID 1432781, 8 pages
Research Article

Application of Long-Range Surface Plasmon Resonance for ABO Blood Typing

1Graduate School of Science and Technology and Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-Nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181, Japan
2Materials Science and Engineering Programme, Multidisciplinary Unit and Center of Intelligence Materials and Systems, NANOTEC Center of Excellence at Mahidol University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Rd., Phayathai, Rajathavee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

Received 12 September 2016; Accepted 30 November 2016

Academic Editor: Günther K. Bonn

Copyright © 2016 Wanida Tangkawsakul et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In this study, we demonstrate a long-range surface plasmon resonance (LR-SPR) biosensor for the detection of whole cell by captured antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) as a model. The LR-SPR sensor chip consists of high-refractive index glass, a Cytop film layer, and a thin gold (Au) film, which makes the evanescent field intensity and the penetration depth longer than conventional SPR. Therefore, the LR-SPR biosensor has improved capability for detecting large analytes, such as RBCs. The antibodies specific to blood group A and group B (Anti-A and Anti-B) are covalently immobilized on a grafting self-assembled monolayer (SAM)/Au surface on the biosensor. For blood typing, RBC samples can be detected by the LR-SPR biosensor through a change in the refractive index. We determined that the results of blood typing using the LR-SPR biosensor are consistent with the results obtained from the agglutination test. We obtained the lowest detection limits of 1.58 × 105 cells/ml for RBC-A and 3.83 × 105 cells/ml for RBC-B, indicating that the LR-SPR chip has a higher sensitivity than conventional SPR biosensors (3.3 × 108 cells/ml). The surface of the biosensor can be efficiently regenerated using 20 mM NaOH. In summary, as the LR-SPR technique is sensitive and has a simple experimental setup, it can easily be applied for ABO blood group typing.