International Journal of Analytical Chemistry

International Journal of Analytical Chemistry / 2020 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2020 |Article ID 4575030 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/4575030

De-Qian Peng, Zhang-Xin Yu, Can-Hong Wang, Bao Gong, Yang-Yang Liu, Jian-He Wei, "Chemical Constituents and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Incense Smoke from Agarwood Determined by GC-MS", International Journal of Analytical Chemistry, vol. 2020, Article ID 4575030, 19 pages, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/4575030

Chemical Constituents and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Incense Smoke from Agarwood Determined by GC-MS

Academic Editor: Kevin Honeychurch
Received07 Feb 2020
Revised29 Jun 2020
Accepted30 Jun 2020
Published01 Aug 2020

Abstract

Agarwood is generally used to make incense sticks in China and Southeast Asia. It emits smoke with a pleasant odor when burned. There are few reports on the chemical components of smoke generated by burning or heating agarwood. The agarwoods were produced by the whole-tree agarwood-inducing technique (AWIT), agarwood induced by axe wounds (AAW), burning-chisel-drilling agarwood (BCDA), wood of Aquilaria sinensis trees (AS), respectively. Herein, we used GC-MS to analyze the chemical constituents of incense smoke generated from AWIT, AAW, BCDA, AS, and the extracts of sticks from agarwood produced by the whole-tree agarwood-inducing technique (EAWIT), and 484 compounds were identified. A total of 61 chemical constituents were shared among AWIT, AAW, and BCDA. The experimental data showed that aromatic compounds were the main chemical constituents in agarwood smoke and that some chromone derivatives could be cracked into low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds (LACs) at high temperature. Furthermore, agarwood incense smoke showed anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced TNF-α and IL-1α release in RAW264.7 cells.

1. Introduction

Agarwood, called chen‐xiang in China, is a valuable resinous wood from Aquilaria spp. or Gyrinops spp. trees [13]. It has been applied in medicine and shown obvious medicinal effects, such as sedative, carminative, and antiemetic effects [4, 5]. Agarwood does not form until a tree has been affected by factors such as lightning strike, animal grazing, insect attack, and fungi [6, 7]. Moreover, it takes a long time (years or even decades) to form in the wild. Natural agarwood is considered to be the finest source of incense and has been applied in cultural, religious, and medicinal uses for centuries. The market demand for agarwood is increasing daily. As a result, the supply of wild agarwood is not enough to meet the market demand. Many Aquilaria plantations have been established in some Southeast Asian countries, such as Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, and Malaysia. Aquilaria trees have been planted in South China, for example, in Hainan, Guangdong, and Yunnan provinces [8]. Some artificial technologies designed to rapidly induce agarwood formation have been demonstrated to make A. sinensis (AS) trees produce agarwood [7, 911]. In 2009, Blanchette and Heuveling developed cultivated agarwood kits (CA-Kits) [12]. In 2013, Liu et al. developed a whole-tree agarwood-inducing technique (Agar-Wit) [11]. Recently, Peng et al. also developed a similar technology to induce agarwood formation [13]. The above methods induce agarwood formation simply and effectively.

Presently, agarwood and its volatile components are seen as important and efficient natural substances that can be used to produce valuable products such as perfumes and incense because of their fragrance characteristics. Many teams have researched the chemical constituents of agarwood [1, 1416]. The chemical constituents of agarwood essential oil or solvent extracts have been studied by column chromatography, spectroscopic techniques, gas chromatography (GC), and multidimensional GC analysis. Many studies have reported the use of GC-MS to analyze the volatile components in agarwood smoke obtained by heating. For example, in 1993, Ishihara et al. analyzed the volatile constituents in agarwood smoke and identified 53 chemical compounds from Vietnamese agarwood [17]. Nurlaila et al. identified 8 significant compounds from agarwood smoke by Z-score analysis [18]. Recently, Zhou et al. used glass fiber pads to absorb volatile constituents of agarwood smoke from different kinds of agarwood from different countries and extracted the samples with dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) for GC-MS analysis [19, 20]. Kao et al. analyzed agarwood smoke from Kynam agarwood by headspace (HS) preheating with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS GC-MS) and identified 40 compounds [21]. However, there are no reports on agarwood smoke produced by Agar-Wit. Herein, we analyzed the chemical constituents of agarwood smoke produced by Agar-Wit and identified 484 compounds.

2. Experimental Setup

2.1. Chemicals and Reagents

All chemicals were purchased from J&K Scientific (Beijing, China), unless otherwise indicated.

The agarwood samples were identified by Prof. Jianhe Wei (Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, China). Incense sticks of AWIT, AAW, BCDA, and AS were made by Bao Gong (Hainan Branch Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, China).

2.2. Sample Preparation

Each stick was placed in a gas washing bottle (250 mL) fitted with an air inlet/outlet tube. The smoke components were collected by bubbling through a 30 mL amount dichloromethane during the 10 min burn time. In addition, sticks made from AWIT (3.0 g) were pulverized and extracted with CH2Cl2 (30 mL).

2.3. Sample Analysis

Chromatographic separation of the resulting mixture (1.0 μL) was undertaken on an Agilent 7890 A GC coupled to a 5975C quadrupole mass spectrometer and an automated 7683B sample injector system (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, California, USA). Chromatography was performed on a HP-5MS capillary column (30 m × 250 μm ID, 0.25 μm film thickness, 5% diphenyl methyl siloxane (Agilent Technologies, USA). Helium was used as carrier gas at a constant flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The injections (1.0 μL) were performed in splitless injection mode (10 : 1) at 240°C. The operating parameters included the following temperature program: 40°C for 3 min, increase from 40°C to 140°C at a rate of 2.5°C/min, hold at 140°C for 5 min, increase from 140°C to 170°C at a rate of 1.5°C/min, hold at 170°C for 5 min, and increase to 280°C at a rate of 4°C/min. The total run time was 100.5 min as shown in Figure 1. The mass selective detector was operated with electron energy of 70 eV in electron ionization mode. The ion source and quadrupole temperatures were 230°C and 150°C, respectively. The scan range was 40–500 amu in full scan mode. Peak identification was completed by comparing mass spectra with those stored in the NIST 11 database and MSD ChemStation, or by comparing fragmentation patterns with those published by the Dai group [22]. Table 1 shows the representative data.


No.NameRT (min)Relative content (%)
AAWBCDAAWITASEAWIT

1Ethylbenzene6.7746.215 (B)3.296 (B)6.384 (B)1.313 (B)
2Furfuryl alcohol6.8722.212
31,4-Xylene7.0803.709 (B)1.765 (B)
41,3-Xylene7.0862.354 (B)
51,2-Xylene7.0981.326 (B)0.778 (B)
6Phenylacetylene7.3921.387 (B)0.698 (B)1.612 (B)1.013 (B)
7Phenyl carbamate7.6460.308 (B)
8Phenylethylene7.9018.596 (B)3.413 (B)7.973 (B)5.132 (B)
92-Methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one8.6800.400
104,4-Dimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one8.9520.302
112,5-Dimethyl-2,4-hexadiene9.0560.408
12Anisole9.0960.239 (B)0.21 (B)
132(5H)-Furanone9.2000.2020.1320.2990.981
143,4-Dihydro-H-pyran9.3560.2020.2020.381
15Methyl-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetate9.6050.222
16Tetrahydro-22-desoxy-tomatillidine9.6100.211
171-Methylene-2-vinylcyclopentane10.9620.113
18Benzaldehyde11.1180.671 (B)0.28 (B)1.008 (B)1.146 (B)
195-Methyl-furfural11.4070.508
202,3-Dihydroxystearic acid11.8750.209
212-Chloro-2,2-difluoro-acetonitrile11.9500.157
222-Methyl-2-pentenal12.1920.104
23Benzonitrile12.3080.359 (B)
242,2,4,6,6-Pentamethylheptane12.5100.9020.7531.1520.126
25Benzofuran12.7930.541 (B)
26Phenol12.8391.225 (B)0.558 (B)0.592 (B)0.852 (B)
272,2-Diethyl-3-methyl-oxazolidine13.1050.7510.7850.808
28(2S, 3S)-2,3-Dimethoxy-N1,N1,N1,N4-tetramethyl-1,4-butanediamine13.1110.846
295-Norbornene-2-carboxaldehyde13.6540.1690.189
304-Methylanisole14.1850.305 (B)0.102 (B)0.135 (B)0.159 (B)
312-Azido-2,4,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane14.4450.2550.1870.220
322,3-Dioxabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene14.6710.4240.1890.175
333-Methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione14.7170.369
342-Methyl-3-furanthiol15.9180.1060.201
353-Methyl-phenol16.6350.219 (B)0.176 (B)0.12 (B)
362-Methyl-phenol16.6690.226 (B)
373-Methyl-bicyclo[3.3.0]oct-2-en-8-one16.9180.129
382,2,2-Bicyclo-2-octene16.9350.4960.183 (B)0.453 (B)
39p-Cresol17.8010.73 (B)0.473 (B)0.321 (B)0.205 (B)
40Guaiacol17.9980.877 (B)0.51 (B)0.608 (B)1.362 (B)
412-t-Butylamino-acrylonitrile18.1650.4210.2240.240
423,5-Dimethyl-4H-pyran-4-one18.1820.107
433-Hydroxy-2-methyl-4-pyrone19.3380.1690.147
442,5-Dimethylphenol21.6770.223 (B)0.129 (B)0.165 (B)
452,3-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde22.0640.148 (B)
465-Ethyl-3-(3-methyl-5-phenylpyrazol-1-yl)-1,2,4-triazol-4-amine22.2150.152 (B)
47Ethyl disulfide22.2200.094
481-Methylene-1H-indene,22.7400.166 (B)
492-Ethylphenol22.9130.129 (B)
50Trehalose22.9140.324
512-Isopropyl-5-methyl-1-heptanol23.1970.059
523-Methyl-2-butene-1-thiol23.2080.120
532-Methylbutyl pentanoic acid ester23.2250.251
544-Methoxy-1,3-benzenediamine23.3000.216 (B)
552-Methoxy-3-methyl-phenol23.3060.236 (B)
562-Methoxy-4-methylphenol23.6760.444 (B)0.283 (B)0.271 (B)0.309 (B)
572-Methoxy-5-methylphenol23.6880.327 (B)
583,6-Dimethyl-2,6-octadiene-4,5-diol24.1440.129
591,4 : 3,6-Dianhydro-α-d-glucopyranose24.6000.1480.1580.1720.120
60trans-Cinnamaldehyde24.8660.821 (B)
61(1α, 2β, 5β, 6α)-Tricyclo[4.2.1.1(2,5)]deca-3,7-diene-9,10-dione24.8830.4460.325
62α-Methylene-benzeneacetaldehyde24.8950.247 (B)
632,4-Cyclopentadiene-1-ethanamine25.0450.1280.230
641,11-Dibromo-undecane25.0620.101
65Pyrocatechol25.3570.125 (B)0.2870.93 (B)
662,3-Anhydro-d-galactosan25.3570.204 (B)
672,3-Dihydrobenzofuran25.7270.369 (B)0.382 (B)0.299 (B)0.255 (B)
681-Methyl-1H-pyrrole-2(5H)-one26.1310.203
692-Isopropoxyphenol26.1830.226 (B)
703-Methoxyphenol26.2060.263 (B)
715-Hydroxymethylfurfural26.2290.2520.389
724-Phenyl-2-butanone26.3390.77 (B)1.13 (B)1.06 (B)0.177 (B)
731-Methyl-4-amino-4,5(1H)-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-5-one26.8470.259
74Anisic aldehyde26.9050.306 (B)0.301 (B)0.389 (B)
752-Oxohexamethylenimine27.0320.185
763-Methoxy-2-benzenediol27.4540.401 (B)0.365 (B)0.251 (B)0.582 (B)
773-Methoxybenzenethiol27.7310.131 (B)
781-Indanone28.0430.279 (B)0.148 (B)
802-Isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine28.2910.177
794-Ethyl-2-methoxyphenol28.2910.292 (B)0.104 (B)0.071 (B)
813-(4-Methylphenyl)-2-propenal28.4410.206 (B)
822,3-Dihydro-2-methyl-1H-inden-1-one28.4470.2230.056 (B)
83α-Methylcinnamaldehyde28.5570.127 (B)
842-Methylnaphthalene28.6210.285 (B)
851-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-4-methanol29.5270.158
86(E)-2,4,4,7-Tetramethyl-5,7-octadien-3-ol29.6660.179
874-Hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene30.0992.343 (B)1.799 (B)1.512 (B)2.254 (B)
88o-tert-Butyl phenol30.4170.131 (B)
893-Hydroxybenzaldehyde30.8440.252 (B)
902-Methoxybenzyl alcohol31.0810.106 (B)
91trans-3-Hexenedioic acid-bis(trimethylsilyl) ester31.4110.127
922-exo-Chlorobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1-carbonyl chloride31.9420.2820.285
932-Ethyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine32.0000.157
942,6-Dimethoxyphenol32.1153.013 (B)2.939 (B)2.178 (B)
95cis-4,5-Diethyl-1,2-dimethyl-cyclohexene32.1904.085
96Eugenol32.3580.517 (B)0.303 (B)0.262 (B)
973-Allyl-6-methoxyphenol32.3750.413 (B)
983,4-Dimethoxyphenol32.5660.112 (B)0.219 (B)
993-Ethenyl-4-methyl-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione32.8490.2050.149
1003-Cyclohexene-1-acetaldehyde33.2470.1910.136
10111-Methylene-tricyclo[4.3.1.1(2,5)]undecane33.247
1022-Propyl-phenol33.8480.1 (B)
1034-Hydroxybenzaldehyde33.9750.225 (B)
104Dichlorophenylsilane34.0100.321 (B)
105Phenylboronic acid34.0160.406 (B)0.143 (B)
106Vanillin34.4080.8 (B)0.83 (B)0.708 (B)1.842 (B)
1074-(Methylthio)-benzaldehyde34.5930.254 (B)
108(E)-isoeugenol34.8990.341 (B)0.18 (B)0.133 (B)0.31 (B)
109o-Methoxy-benzenethiol35.0840.125 (B)0.197 (B)
1102-Methoxy-1,4-benzenediol35.2170.209 (B)
1112-Benzylidenemalonaldehyde35.2170.204 (B)
1122-Vinylnaphthalene35.4420.115 (B)
1133-Hydroxy-2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione36.0830.237
114Biphenylene36.2340.105 (B)
1152-Methoxy-4-(1-propen-1-yl)-phenol36.8922.962 (B)2.126 (B)2.379 (B)3.254 (B)
1164-Hydroxy-2-methoxybenzaldehyde37.2270.2430.1420.135 (B)
1172-Methoxy-4-propyl-phenol37.4290.268 (B)0.242 (B)0.257 (B)0.454 (B)
1181,7-Dimethylpentacyclo[5.5.0(4,11).0(5,9).0(8,12)]dodecane-2,6-dione37.6890.126 (B)
1192-Methoxy-6-[(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylamino)methyl]-phenol37.6890.107
1204-Hydroxybenzylidene acetone37.7070.101
121N-Phenylthioformamide37.7120.126 (B)
1227-Ethylbenzo[b]thiophene38.0530.153
1235,6-Dimethyl-2-benzimidazolinone38.3820.164 (B)
124Cyclohexylmethylbenzene38.4400.145 (B)0.161 (B)
1253,4-Dimethoxy-benzaldehyde38.5730.712 (B)
1264′-(Methylthio)acetophenone38.6600.3700.298 (B)0.256 (B)
1274-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone39.2321.067 (B)1.161 (B)1.124 (B)0.137
128Pentadecane39.4340.168
129Dibenzofuran39.4510.186 (B)0.145 (B)
1302′,6′-Dihydroxyacetophenone, bis(trimethylsilyl) ether39.8500.207 (B)
1311-Methyl-1-phenylmethoxy-1-silacyclohexane39.8730.104 (B)0.111 (B)
1321,3,3-Trimethyl-2-(1-methylbut-1-en-3-on-1-yl)-1-cyclohexene40.1730.273
1331,2-Dimethoxy-4-(methoxymethyl)benzene40.1960.178 (B)
1342,4-Di-tert-butylphenol40.2020.287 (B)
1352-(2-Hydroxyhex-1-enyl)-3-methyl-5,6-dihydropyrazine40.2600.138
1365-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-1,2,3-benzenetriol40.6530.578 (B)0.34 (B)0.212 (B)0.684 (B)
137Homovanillyl alcohol40.7800.594 (B)0.507 (B)0.417 (B)1.119 (B)
138[4-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)phenoxy]-acetate-methanol41.9120.159 (B)
139(S)-4,5,6,7,8,8a-Hexahydro-8aα-methylazulen-2(1H)-one42.1370.109
140Acetic acid-2-propylphenyl ester42.1600.114 (B)
1413-Nitrobenzaldehyde-(O-methyl oxime)42.420
1422,3,5,6-Tetrafluoroanisole42.4434.532 (B)3.741 (B)4.13 (B)
1433-tert-Butyl-4-hydroxyanisole42.5475.641 (B)
1442,5-Dihydroxy-4-isopropyl-2,4,6-cycloheptatrien-1-one42.8190.329
145α-Santalol42.8480.511 (S)
1462,3-Dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-3,7-benzofurandiol42.8880.359 (B)0.39 (B)0.394 (B)
1477-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-naphthalenone43.1190.105 (B)
1483-Ethoxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde43.1830.324 (B)0.221 (B)
1493-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid-methyl ester43.2000.318 (B)
150Ethyl vanillate43.2110.279 (B)
151α-Amino-3′-hydroxy-4′-methoxyacetophenone43.4430.126 (B)0.143 (B)
152(3S, 4R, 5R, 6R)-4,5-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-3,6-dimethylcyclohexene43.6100.202
153Carbonic acid-2,3-dimethylphenyl methyl ester43.6280.41 (B)
1543-(4-Methoxyphenyl)propionic Acid43.6560.431 (B)
155Hexadecane44.0780.3290.3510.3210.127
1562,6-Dimethoxy-4-(2-propen-1-yl)-phenol44.2740.785 (B)0.619 (B)0.521 (B)1.029 (B)
1572,6-Dimethyl-4-nitrophenol44.5860.256 (B)
158[1S-(1α, 4α, 7α)]-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-Octahydro-1,4,9,9-tetramethyl-4,7-methanoazulene44.5920.406 (S)
1592-Ethyl-4-methyl-4,6-bis(1-methylethyl)-4H-1,3,2-dioxaborin44.5920.139
1608-Epi-γ-eudesmol44.6330.261 (S)0.219 (S)
161Methyl-2,6,6-trimethyl-3-oxo-1-cyclohexene-1-acrylate44.7370.155
1622′,6′-Dimethylacetanilide44.7710.187
163[1S-(1α, 4aβ, 8aα)]-1,2,4a,5,8,8a-Hexahydro-4,7-dimethyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-naphthalene45.1520.141 (S)
164[1R-(1α, 3aα, 7aα)]-1,2,3,6,7,7a-Hexahydro-2,2,4,7a-tetramethyl-1,3a-ethano-3aH-indene45.3260.241 (B)0.149 (S)
165Agarospirol45.5510.238 (S)0.195 (S)0.413 (S)
166Methyl 3-(bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-1-yl)-propenoate45.5860.116
167Hinesol45.7190.1260.251 (S)
168(1α, 6α, 7α)-1,5,5-Trimethyl-2-methylene-bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-7-methanol45.7360.121 (S)
169(1R, 3aR, 4R, 7R)-1,2,3,3a,4,5,6,7-Octahydro-1,4-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethenyl)-azulene45.7480.191 (S)
170[1S-(1α, 4α, 7α)]-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-Octahydro-1,4-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethenyl)-azule45.7760.222 (B)
171Longifolene45.9900.565 (S)
17210S,11S-Himachala-3(12),4-diene46.0070.155 (S)
173Neoisolongifolene46.0420.262 (S)0.248 (S)
174Ledol46.2790.219 (S)0.519 (S)
175β-Eudesmol46.3250.1500.343 (S)
176Guaiol46.4980.939 (S)
177γ-Selinene46.5040.589 (S)1.164 (S)1.868 (S)
1781-Bromooctadecane46.712
1797,9-Dimethyl-hexadecane46.7290.1690.219
180(4-Methoxyphenyl)glycolic acid46.7520.212
1813-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid46.8800.629 (B)0.509 (B)0.517 (B)0.814 (B)
182Dehydroaromadendrene47.3010.442 (S)
1833,5-Dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde47.3531.599 (B)1.78 (B)1.891 (B)2.92 (B)
1842,4,6-Trimethyl-pyridine47.4280.383
185Camphene47.5610.600
186Ethyl (3-pyridyl)carbamate N-oxide47.6080.753
187Hexamethyl-benzene47.6540.5030.646 (B)
1881-(1,3a,4,5,6,7-Hexahydro-4-hydroxy-3,8-dimethyl-5-azulenyl)-ethanone47.8960.142 (S)
1892-Allyl-1,4-dimethoxy-3-methyl-benzene48.0290.249 (B)0.33 (B)
1902,5-Dibutyl-furan48.1501.392
191Vanillylacetone48.2081.036 (B)0.967 (B)0.425 (B)
192[1S-(1α, 7α, 8aβ)]-1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-Octahydro-1,4-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethenyl)-azulene48.4800.55 (S)
193Dehydro-cyclolongifolene oxide48.5090.717 (S)0.473 (B)
1944-Methoxymethyl-6-methyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-ylamine48.5720.283
1951-Cyclohexyl-2-methoxy-benzene48.6010.384 (B)0.72 (B)
196N,N-Diethyl-2-benzoxazolamine48.6130.781 (B)
197Octahydro-2-(1-methylethylidene)-4,7-methano-1H-indene49.1610.361 (B)
1984,6,6-Trimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)-3-oxatricyclo[5.1.0.0(2,4)]octane49.1670.172
1994-Methylene-1-methyl-2-(2-methyl-1-propen-1-yl)-1-vinyl-4-methylene-1-methyl-2-(2-methyl-1-propen-1-yl)-1-vinyl-cycloheptane49.2190.1210.181
2003-Phenoxy-phenol49.4670.3250.154 (B)0.134 (B)0.248 (B)
201(Z)-3,7-Dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene49.5370.406
2021,7-Dimethyl-7-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-tricyclo[2.2.1.0(2,6)]heptane49.6120.2 (S)0.192 (S)
2032-Acetate-1,3-dimethoxy-5-(1-propenyl)-benzene50.0573.206 (B)2.309 (B)
2042,5-Dimethoxyterephthalic acid50.1782.516 (B)3.780
2052-(2-Furanylmethylene)-6-methyl-cyclohexanone50.2700.255
2064-Propylbiphenyl50.3800.704 (B)0.711 (B)
2071-Ethyl-3-(phenylmethyl)-benzene50.3860.745 (B)
208N,N,S-Trimethyl-3-aminothiophenol50.4150.684 (B)
209Neocurdione50.4380.161 (S)
210endo-Borneol51.0560.611
2119-Fluorenone51.0730.205 (B)
212[1S-(1α, 3aβ, 4α, 8aβ, 9R)]-Decahydro-4,8,8-trimethyl-1,4-methanoazulene-9-methanol51.1080.488 (S)0.295 (S)
213Methyl α-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzeneacetate51.6050.101 (B)
2142,2′-Methylenebis[5-methyl-furan51.7430.136
2154-Hydroxy-2-methoxycinnamaldehyde51.8820.937 (B)0.897 (B)0.78 (B)
2163-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenal52.0722.664 (B)
217Acetosyringone52.0960.967 (B)0.829 (B)0.88 (B)1.499 (B)
218syn-3,3,5,6,8,8-Hexamethyl-tricyclo[5.1.0.0(2,4)]oct-5-ene,52.3331.5301.9791.7620.624
2192-Phenylethyl-1,1,2,2-d4-amine52.5411.184 (B)
2202-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-phenol52.5521.377 (B)
2212′-Hydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-3-phenylpropanal52.5580.762 (B)
2222-[3-Methoxyphenyl]-propionic acid52.5811.048 (B)
2233-(2-Pentenyl)-1,2,4-cyclopentanetrione52.6796.688 (B)
2247-(1,3-Dimethylbuta-1,3-dienyl)-1,6,6-trimethyl-3,8-dioxatricyclo[5.1.0.0(2,4)]octane52.9510.3400.6210.7320.491
225o-Mentha-1(7),8-dien-3-ol53.2620.206
2261,10b(2H)-Dihydropyrano[3,4,5-jk]fluorene53.4880.153 (B)
227Anthracene53.4990.124 (B)
228(1S, 6R, 9S)-5,5,9,10-Tetramethyltricyclo[7.3.0.0(1,6)]dodec-10(11)-ene53.6090.1210.4570.414
229(Z)-3-Methyl-2-(2,4-pentadienyl)-2-cyclopenten-1-one53.6320.559
2301-Methoxy-4-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-benzene54.0190.565 (B)
231(1Z, 3aα, 7aβ)-1H-1-Ethylideneoctahydro-7a-methyl-indene54.0890.466 (B)0.773 (B)0.531 (B)
2323-(Phenylmethoxy)-1-propanol54.2330.238 (B)
233trans-1,10-Dimethyl-2-methylene-decalin54.5100.113
2343,5-Dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid54.6491.383 (B)1.359 (B)1.391 (B)2.15 (B)
235(1aR, 4S, 4aR, 7S, 7aR, 7bS)-Decahydro-1,1,4,7-tetramethyl-1H-cycloprop[e]azulene54.6720.177 (S)
2362,7-Dimethyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-1,8-nonadiene55.0360.126
237Longifolenaldehyde55.2610.12 (S)
238(2R-cis)-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,7-Octahydro-α,α,4a,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenemethanol55.3770.409 (B)
239(4aR, 5S)-4,4a,5,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4a,5-dimethyl-3-(1-methylethylidene)-2(3H)-naphthalenone55.8500.459 (S)0.535 (S)0.609 (S)0.611 (S)
2401,2,4-Triethyl-benzene56.1300.301 (B)
241Isoaromadendrene epoxide56.1450.114 (S)0.143 (S)
2422,3,4,5-Tetramethyl-tricyclo[3.2.1.02,7]oct-3-ene56.4050.659
243Globulol56.5840.344 (S)
244Octadecane56.6240.2850.3310.3930.179
2452,3-Dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranol56.8030.258 (B)
2461β, 2α-Dimethyl-3α, 5β-bis(1-methylethenyl)cyclohexane56.8440.285
2474,6-Dimethoxy-1-naphthaldehyde56.8960.214 (B)
2482-Bromo-1,3-dimethoxy-benzene56.9190.305 (B)
2491,3,5-Triethyl-benzene57.0400.252 (B)
2507-Methyl-pentadecane57.1440.189
2512-Methyl-dodecane57.1500.154
252Corymbolone57.2250.164 (S)
2532,6,10,14-tetramethyl-Hexadecane57.2250.1300.2850.1510.298
2541-(2-Thienyl)-1-heptanone57.5200.500
2551-(2-Thienyl)-1-hexanone57.5430.391
2562,4-Dimethylcyclopentane-1,3-dione57.6010.475
2571-(2-Thienyl)-ethanone57.6121.207
2581-(2,6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-ethanone57.7160.162 (B)
2595-(2-Thienyl)-4-pyrimidinamine57.8321.0861.5132.402
2601,3-Benzenedicarboxylic acid-4-methyl-1,3-dimethyl ester57.9415.197 (B)
2613,4-Dimethoxy-benzaldehyde oxime58.0510.196 (B)
2621,2-Dimethoxy-4-(1,2-dimethoxyethyl)benzene58.0630.295 (B)0.233 (B)
2635-Methoxy-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine-3-thiol58.1490.335
264Methyl-3-amino-4-methoxybenzoate58.2480.192 (B)0.304 (B)0.29 (B)
265Isomaltol58.2710.623
2669-Methyl-9-azabicyclo[4.2.1]nona-2,4-diene58.7210.1030.970
267Chlordimeform58.7910.309 (B)
268Nootkatone59.2290.118 (S)
2694-(3-Methyl-2-butenyl)-phenol59.5410.772 (B)
270[2R-(2α, 4aα, 8aβ)]-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,8a-Octahydro-4a,8-dimethyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)-naphthalene59.6630.125 (S)
271[1R-(1R, 4Z, 9S)]-4,11,11-trimethyl-8-methylene-bicyclo[7.2.0]undec-4-ene59.9520.193 (S)
2722,3,4,5,6-Pentamethyl-benzoic acid60.2000.221 (B)0.151 (B)
273[1aR-(1aα, 7α, 7aα, 7bα)]-1a,2,3,5,6,7,7a,7b-Octahydro-1,1,7,7a-tetramethyl-1H-cyclopropa[a]naphthalene60.2060.167 (S)
2744,5-Dihydro-6-(4-fluorophenyl)-pyridazin-3(2H)-one60.235
275N(1)-[(3-Methoxyphenyl)methyl]-1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazole-1,5-diamine60.3670.17 (B)
2761-Ethenyl-1-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexane60.3960.601 (S)
277(E,E)-1,5-Dimethyl-8-(1-methylethylidene)-1,5-cyclodecadiene60.4430.165 (S)
2786,7-Dimethyl-8-(1-methylethyl)-2,4(1H,3H)-pteridinedione60.7080.105
279trans-Z-α-Bisabolene epoxide60.7370.42 (S)
280Aromadendrene oxide-(1)61.0660.814 (S)
281Cedrol61.0720.376 (S)
2821-Hydroxy-6-(3-isopropenyl-cycloprop-1-enyl)-6-methyl-heptan-2-one61.1531.008
283(1R, 7R, 8aS)-1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-Octahydro-1,8a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethenyl)-naphthalene61.1702.925 (S)
284α-Farnesene61.5460.429
2852-Methylene-6,8,8-trimethyl-tricyclo[5.2.2.0(1,6)]undecan-3-ol61.5920.156
286Thiocyanic acid-4-(dimethylamino)phenyl ester61.7020.354
287[4aR-(4aα, 7α, 8aβ)]-Decahydro-4a-methyl-1-methylene-7-(1-methylethenyl)-naphthalene61.8920.198 (S)
288Decahydro-2,2,4,8-tetramethyl-4,8-methanoazulen-9-ol stereoisomer62.0600.306 (S)
289Diphenylmethane62.5510.27 (B)
290[1aR-(1aα, 4β, 4aβ, 7α, 7aβ, 7bα)]-Decahydro-1,1,4,7-tetramethyl-1H-cycloprop[e]azulen-4-ol62.5680.205 (S)
291Spiro(tricyclo[6.2.1.0(2,7)]undeca-2,4,6,9-tetraene-11,1′-cyclopropane62.5680.198 (B)
2924-Methyl-1-[2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl]-1-penten-3-one,62.6030.149
293[1S-(1α, 7α, 8aα)]-1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-Octahydro-1,8a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethenyl)-naphthalene62.7880.248 (S)
294Caryophyllene63.0070.172 (S)
295Nonadecane63.0590.1290.1340.1250.145
2967-Methoxy-3,4-dihydro-2[1H]-quinoxalinone63.2330.241 (B)0.27 (B)0.367 (B)
2972-Allyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene63.2961.347 (B)
298Dehydroxy-isocalamendiol63.4930.241 (S)
2993,4,5,6-Tetramethyl-2,5-octadiene63.5040.133 (S)
300Megastigmatrienone63.5390.914
3016-(1-Hydroxymethylvinyl)-4,8a-dimethyl-3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-1H-naphthalen-2-one63.5730.286 (B)
302α-Ethyl-benzeneacetamide63.7290.442 (B)
3038-Ethenyl-3,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-5-methylene-2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid63.7470.175 (B)
304[1S-(1α, 2β, 4β)]-1-Ethenyl-1-methyl-2,4-bis(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohexane63.9890.666 (S)
3051-Methylphenazine 5-oxide63.9890.945 (B)
3063-Phenylbicyclo(3.2.2)nona-3,6-dien-2-one63.9950.217 (B)
3071-(1-Hydroxybutyl)-2,5-dimethoxybenzene64.0350.423 (B)0.49 (B)
308Methyleugenol64.5380.123 (B)0.315 (B)0.23 (B)
3092-Ethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzothiopyran64.6301.177 (B)
310Acetic acid-cyano-hydroxyimino-methyl ester65.0060.484
311N-Dimethylaminomethylene-anthranilic acid65.0120.252 (S)0.26 (S)0.165 (S)
3122-Methyl-9-(prop-1-en-3-ol-2-yl)-bicyclo[4.4.0]dec-2-ene-4-ol65.2431.25 (S)
313(1aR, 4aR, 7R, 7aR, 7bS)-Decahydro-1,1,7-trimethyl-4-methylene-1H-cycloprop[e]azulene65.2540.514 (B)1.064 (B)
314[4aR-(4aα, 5α, 8aα)]-4a,5,6,7,8,8a-Hexahydro-3,4a,5-trimethyl-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-9(4H)-one65.3814.963 (S)
3157,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane65.7160.137 (B)
3164-(1,3,3-Trimethyl-bicyclo[4.1.0]hept-2-yl)-but-3-en-2-one65.7800.233
317Alloaromadendrene oxide65.8200.543 (S)
318γ-Elemene66.2070.835 (S)
3191-(2,4,6-Trimethylphenyl)-3-(2-propynyl)-thiourea66.6980.68 (B)1.52 (B)1.68 (B)5.466 (B)
3203,4-Dimethylphenyl trifluoro-acetate66.8830.209 (B)
32112-Azabicyclo[9.2.2]pentadeca-1(13),11,14-trien-13-ylamine66.9010.2050.2761.177
3221-Butyl-1H-pyrrole67.0620.2130.2880.174
323(3aα, 8β, 8aα)-5,6-1,2,3,3a,8,8a-Hexahydro-2,2,8-trimethyl-azulenedimethanol67.2590.631 (S)
324(2R, 5S, 10R)-6,10-Dimethyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)-spiro[4.5]dec-6-en-8-one67.3860.326 (S)
325N-Salicylidene-N′-salicyloylhydrazine67.4960.597 (B)
3263,5-Dimethyl-benzenamine67.5070.633 (B)
3272-Allyl-3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenol67.7091.709 (B)
3281,2-Dimethoxy-4-(3-methoxy-1-propenyl)benzene67.7321.572 (B)
329Levomenol67.7780.305 (S)
330n-Hexadecanoic acid67.8071.701
3312,2,8,8-Tetramethyl-3,6-nonadien-5-one67.9580.428
3323,5-Dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde68.1190.123 (B)1.723 (B)3.472 (B)
3331-Hydroxy-6-methylphenazine68.5291.19 (B)1.897 (B)1.555 (B)
334Desaspidinol68.8473.559 (B)
3352-Chloro-4-cyclohexyl-phenol68.8820.177 (B)0.302 (B)
3365-Ethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-naphthalene68.8990.779 (B)
337Heptadecane69.3610.195
338Humulane-1,6-dien-3-ol69.3840.784 (S)
3398,8-Dimethyl-9-methylene-1,5-cycloundecadiene69.7770.465 (S)
3402,4-Dichloro-1-nitrobenzene70.0830.429 (B)
3411-(2-Benzyloxyethyl)cyclohexene70.4530.369 (B)
342Caryophyllene oxide70.4762.082 (S)
343Aromadendrene oxide-(2)70.4760.272 (S)
344Diepicedrene-1-oxide70.5450.368 (S)
3453,4-Dihydro-3,3,6,8-tetramethylnaphthalen-1(2H)-one70.5800.115 (B)
3461-Methyl-2,4-bis(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohexane71.0310.248 (S)
347[1aR-(1aα, 4aα, 7β, 7aβ, 7bα)]-Decahydro-1,1,7-trimethyl-4-methylene-1H-cycloprop[e]azulen-7-ol71.1400.512 (S)
3483-Hydroxy-2-methyl-4-[4-t-butyl]-butanal72.4810.242
3491-(1-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-2-naphthyl)ethanone72.4981.586 (B)
3502-(Butenyl)-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3-dimethyl-benzene72.5440.346 (B)
351(1R, 2R, 6S, 7S, 8S) -1-Methyl-8-(1-methylethyl)-tricyclo[4.4.0.02,7]dec-3-ene-3-methanol72.8850.359 (S)
3524-Hydroxy-4a,5-dimethyl-3-methylene-3a,4,4a,5,6,7,9,9a-octahydro-3H-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-2-one72.8960.194 (B)
3531,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-6-nitronaphthalene72.9310.888 (B)
3541-(3,3-Dimethyl-1-yl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-3-carboxylic acid72.9600.324
355N-(p-Methoxy-trans-styryl)-formamide73.2720.546 (B)
3568,9-Dehydro-9-formyl-cycloisolongifolene73.7050.548 (S)0.691 (S)
3572-tert-Butyl-quinoxaline 4-oxide73.7451.237 (B)
358β-Vatirenene73.7630.803 (S)
359Octadecanal73.9190.144
360[1S-(1α, 3aβ, 4α, 7aβ)]-Octahydro-1,7a-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-1,4-methano-1H-indene74.8720.368 (S)
3611-(1-Hydroxyethyl)-1-(diethylphosphonyl)-2-methylene-cyclopropane74.8780.109
3621-Nonadecene75.2650.149
363(E,E)-3,7-Dimethyl-10-(1-methylethylidene)-3,7-cyclodecadien-1-one75.6920.232 (S)
364Alloaromadendrene76.1950.488 (S)
365Heneicosane76.2350.1480.1770.127
3662,3-Dihydro-7-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one76.8590.277 (B)
3672-Butyl-5-hexyloctahydro-1H-indene77.3440.253
3682,2' : 5′,2″-Terthiophene77.7770.228
3691-Methyl-4-(2-methyloxiranyl)-7-oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane78.3550.248 (B)
3704,4-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-1-penten-3-one78.5630.199 (B)
3711,5-Diphenyl-1-penten-3-one78.6030.16 (B)0.354 (B)0.139 (B)
372(1-Methylbutyl)-benzene79.4240.266 (B)
373Stearic acid79.5040.198
374[1S-(1α, 2α, 3aβ, 4α, 8aβ, 9R)]-Decahydro-1,5,5,8a-tetramethyl-1,2,4-methenoazulene79.6660.186 (S)
375Z-8-Methyl-9-tetradecenoic acid79.7990.105
3761,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-1,5,7-trimethylnaphthalene79.9030.426 (B)
377N-Phenyl-2-naphthylamine80.7460.121 (B)0.186 (B)
378Z-5-Nonadecene81.0240.1960.1810.230
379Cyclopentadecane81.0470.188
380Diaveridine81.1050.108 (B)
381(Z)-3-Tridecen-1-yne81.4280.322
382Ambrosin82.2770.102 (S)
3832-Decanone O-methyl oxime82.3290.1040.1150.092
384N,N-Dimethyldecanamide82.3520.140
385[1aR-(1aα, 4aβ, 8aS)]-1,1a,5,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4a,8,8-trimethyl-cyclopropa[d]naphthalen-2(4aH)-one82.7100.124 (S)
386Murolan-3,9(11)-diene-10-peroxy83.2480.267 (S)
387Chromone derivative85.3960.109 (C)0.08 (C)
388Chromone derivative85.8180.132 (C)0.217 (C)0.151 (C)
389Chromone derivative86.7832.245 (C)1.812 (C)1.697 (C)3.633 (C)
390Chromone derivative87.1870.1040.112
391Chromone derivative87.5390.331 (C)
392Chromone derivative88.7240.159
393Chromone derivative88.8800.1180.123
394Chromone derivative88.891
395Chromone derivative88.8970.152 (C)0.175
396Chromone derivative89.2090.14 (C)0.662 (C)0.345 (C)0.334 (C)
397Chromone derivative89.5150.064 (C)0.14 (C)
398Chromone derivative89.7690.221 (C)
399Chromone derivative89.7870.125 (B)
400Chromone derivative89.8440.286
401Chromone derivative89.8670.108 (B)
402Chromone derivative90.5953.447 (C)
403Chromone derivative90.6011.127 (C)
404Chromone derivative90.6300.179 (C)
405Chromone derivative90.6413.239 (C)
406Chromone derivative90.6767.398 (C)
407Chromone derivative91.0000.197 (C)
408Chromone derivative91.0000.121 (C)
409Chromone derivative91.0170.148 (C)
410Chromone derivative91.4853.502 (C)
411Chromone derivative91.4851.32 (C)
412Chromone derivative91.5710.542 (C)
413Chromone derivative91.5714.593 (C)
414Chromone derivative91.6290.105 (C)
415Chromone derivative91.7100.649 (C)
416Chromone derivative91.7160.132 (C)
417Chromone derivative91.7271.405 (C)
418Chromone derivative91.7450.561 (C)
419Chromone derivative91.8030.592 (C)
420Chromone derivative91.8080.481 (C)
421Chromone derivative91.8370.411
423Chromone derivative91.8370.539 (C)
422Chromone derivative91.9530.88 (C)
424Chromone derivative91.9530.434 (C)
425Chromone derivative91.9870.796 (C)
426Chromone derivative92.5710.143 (C)
427Chromone derivative92.8940.254 (B)
428Chromone derivative92.9351.293 (C)
429Chromone derivative92.9580.221 (C)
430Chromone derivative92.9690.485 (B)
431Chromone derivative93.3390.388 (C)
432Chromone derivative93.7840.6 (C)
433Chromone derivative94.1360.14 (C)
434Chromone derivative94.3560.731
435Chromone derivative94.3610.125 (C)
436Chromone derivative94.3610.596 (C)
437Chromone derivative94.3900.832 (C)
438Chromone derivative94.7950.323 (C)
439Chromone derivative94.8000.187 (C)
440Chromone derivative94.8120.371 (C)
441Chromone derivative95.2281.254 (C)
442Chromone derivative95.2280.596 (C)
443Chromone derivative95.2570.614 (C)
444Chromone derivative95.2680.165 (C)
445Chromone derivative95.6090.217 (C)
446Chromone derivative95.7480.243 (C)
447Chromone derivative95.7540.237 (C)
448Chromone derivative95.7650.478 (B)
449Chromone derivative95.7710.206 (C)
450Chromone derivative95.8340.414 (C)
451Chromone derivative95.9040.291 (C)
452Chromone derivative95.9210.678 (B)
453Chromone derivative95.9670.713 (C)
454Chromone derivative95.9733.243 (C)
455Chromone derivative96.0192.703 (C)
456Chromone derivative96.0887.2 (C)
457Chromone derivative96.3080.178 (C)
458Chromone derivative96.3080.192 (C)
459Chromone derivative96.3190.177 (B)
460Chromone derivative96.3430.281 (C)
461Chromone derivative96.3720.498 (C)
462Chromone derivative96.3950.267 (C)
463Chromone derivative96.4000.313 (C)
464Chromone derivative96.4120.381
465Chromone derivative96.4180.43 (B)
466Chromone derivative96.5560.138 (B)
467Chromone derivative96.6320.058 (C)
468Chromone derivative96.6370.312 (C)
469Chromone derivative96.6490.236 (B)
470Chromone derivative96.6550.16 (B)
471Chromone derivative96.7180.332 (C)
472Chromone derivative96.7530.206
473Chromone derivative97.0880.464 (C)
474Chromone derivative97.3190.176 (C)
475Chromone derivative97.4690.171 (C)
476Chromone derivative97.7000.469 (C)
477Chromone derivative98.3410.863 (C)
478Chromone derivative98.3990.103
479Chromone derivative98.9820.104 (C)
480Chromone derivative99.2420.374 (C)
481Chromone derivative99.5660.264 (C)
482Chromone derivative99.7510.192 (C)
483Chromone derivative100.0340.281 (C)
484Chromone derivative100.3460.577 (C)
Total97.62097.16499.85997.04096.079

B: aromatic compound; C: chromone derivative; S: sesquiterpenes; —: not detected.
2.4. LPS-Stimulated TNF-α and IL-1α Release in RAW264.7 Cells
2.4.1. Isolation and Culture of RAW264.7 Cells

RAW264.7 cells in logarithmic growth phase were washed twice with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and inoculated in 96-well plates at a density of 1 × 104 cells per well, and 100 μL of cell suspension was added to each well. Three compound wells were set in each group and cultured at 37°C in 5% CO2 for 24 h.

2.4.2. Measurement of TNF-α and IL-1α Production

The cells were incubated with 1 ng/mL LPS in the presence of indomethacin, AAW, BCDA, and AWIT (20, 40 and 80 μg/mL) and cultured at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 24 h. Then, the levels of TNF-α and IL-1α in the cell-free culture supernatant were determined by ELISA kits. Briefly, 10 μL of supernatant was mixed with an equal volume of reagents A and B [1 : 1 (v/v)] in a 96-well flat-bottom plate. The absorbance at 540 nm was measured after 10 min using an ELISA reader. The amounts of TNF-α and IL-1α were calculated from a standard curve created using known concentrations of standards.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. GC-MS Analysis

n-Hexane, methanol, DMSO, and CH2Cl2 were used to collect the chemical constituents of incense smoke from agarwood. The GC-MS peaks of incense smoke samples collected using CH2Cl2 were the most intense among the peaks obtained using the above solvents. Therefore, CH2Cl2 was selected to dissolve the chemical constituents of smoke samples (agarwood and AS). Finally, 484 compounds in total (Table 1 and Figure 1) were identified from the incense smoke samples (AAW, BCDA, AWIT, and AS) and the samples obtained by CH2Cl2 extraction of sticks from AWIT. The numbers of compounds identified in incense smoke from AAW, BCDA, AWIT, AS, and EAWIT were 167, 158, 141, 127, and 131, respectively. Aromatics and chromone derivatives were the main chemical constituents in AAW, BCDA, and AWIT; among all chemical constituents, aromatics represented 69.617, 55.038, and 60.483%, and chromone derivatives represented 9.252, 17.725, and 16.946%, respectively.

The chemical constituents of incense smoke may be quantifiable. Therefore, the chemical constituents of incense smoke from agarwood produced by AWIT were compared with the corresponding constituents from agarwood produced by AAW and BCDA. A total of 61 compounds in the AWIT sample, representing 54.837%, were also found in the AAW and BCDA samples. The major compounds (relative content >1%) were phenylethylene (7.973%); ethylbenzene (6.384%); 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoroanisole (4.130%); 5-(2-thienyl)-4-pyrimidinamine (2.402%); 2-methoxy-4-(1-propen-1-yl)-phenol (2.379%); 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2.178%); syn-3,3,5,6,8,8-hexamethyl-tricyclo[5.1.0.0(2,4)]oct-5-ene (1.762%); 1-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-3-(2-propynyl)-thiourea (1.680%); phenylacetylene (1.612%); 1-hydroxy-6-methylphenazine (1.555%); 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene(1.512%) 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (1.391%); 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane (1.152%); 4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone (1.124%); 4-phenyl-2-butanone (1.060%); and benzaldehyde (1.008%). Moreover, chromone derivatives and sesquiterpenes are the main components responsible for pharmacodynamic effects [2325]. In this experiment, 21 compounds, representing 16.946%, were identified as chromone derivatives according to the peaks at m/z 91, 121, 137, 107, 160, 176, 190, 220, 250, 266, 280, 282, 296, 310, 312, 326, 328, and 342 [22], and 16 compounds were identified as sesquiterpenes, representing 6.768%. In short, aromatic compounds were the main chemical constituents of incense smoke from agarwood, including AWIT, AAW, and BCDA samples.

To identify whether agarwood (AAW, AWIT, and BCDA) contained chemical constituents of AS, incense smoke produced from AS was tested by the same method. No sesquiterpenes were detected among the chemical constituents of the smoke, and chromones only represented 4.569%, which was less than the contents in AWIT (16.946%), AAW (9.252%), and BCDA (17.725%). Finally, 29 compounds, representing 32.627%, were also found in AWIT, AAW, and BCDA. The main compounds (relative amount >1%) were phenylethylene (5.132%); 2-methoxy-4-(1-propen-1-yl)-phenol (3.254%); 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2.920%); 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene (2.254%); 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (2.150%); vanillin (1.842%); acetosyringone (1.499%); guaiacol (1.362%); ethylbenzene (1.313%); benzaldehyde (1.146%); homovanillyl alcohol (1.119%); 2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propen-1-yl)-phenol (1.029%); and phenylacetylene (1.013%). These components may be from the residue of A. sinensis, a sticky powder, making agarwood powder bind, used in the preparation of sticks of AS (making sticks from pure AS alone is difficult, so the addition of a sticky powder is necessary) or agarwood in A. sinensis (AS can form agarwood in the process of storage).

The data for incense smoke from agarwood (AAW, AWIT, and BCDA) showed that low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds (LACs) represented more than 55% of the total constituents. Michiho Ito et al. reported that chromone derivatives could be converted and produce the pleasant smell of agarwood through the generation of LACs in the process of heating [26,27] (Scheme 1). Chromone derivatives are among the main chemical constituents of agarwood. They can generate unique and different LACs at high temperature (when burned). As a result, many LACs were detected in the agarwood smoke. To verify the results, an extraction experiment of sticks from AWIT was carried out at room temperature (to avoid high temperature). The results showed that chromone derivatives, sesquiterpenes, and aromatics were the main chemical constituents, representing 26.547, 26.767, and 26.941% of the total constituents, respectively. Few chemical constituents of EAWIT were observed before 40 min (tR), as shown in Figure 1, while there was far higher number of peaks after 58 min (tR), which is indicative of chromone derivatives and sesquiterpenes. Interestingly, the chemical constituents of incense smoke showed the opposite trend in Figure 1. The results indicated that high-molecular-weight compounds might be cracked into low-molecular-weight compounds at high temperature. In other words, some chromone derivatives and sesquiterpenes might be converted into low-molecular-weight compounds, which is consistent with the reported literature [26, 27]. Therefore, low-molecular-weight compounds accounted for a high percentage of the incense smoke obtained from agarwood during burning. Moreover, some studies suggested that the inhalation of some LACs had a sedative or hypnotic effect on mice and that benzylacetone in particular reduces mouse locomotor activity [2830]. Hence, inhalation of the pleasant aroma generated by agarwood during heating could lead to pharmacological effects.

3.2. Effect of Chemical Constituents on TNF-α and IL-1α Release in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells

As shown in Tables 2 and 3, normal inactivated RAW264.7 cells produced low amounts of TNF-α and IL-1α after 24 h of incubation at 37°C, and exposure to LPS induced higher amounts of TNF-α and IL-1α. In contrast, under indomethacin treatment, AAW, BCDA, and AWIT produced a concentration-dependent decrease at concentrations of 20, 40, and 80 μg/mL. The TNF-α and IL-1α levels of model group were significantly higher than those of the normal group ( or ). The incense components of AAW, BCDA, AWIT, and indomethacin significantly reduced TNF-α and IL-1α levels (, , or ), showing better anti-inflammatory effects. These results showed that the anti-inflammatory activities of AAW, AWIT, and indomethacin were comparable and superior to that of BCDA.


Drug/dose80 μg/mL40 μg/mL20 μg/mL

Normal189.09 ± 15.25
Model236.09 ± 18.79
Indomethacin152.39 ± 16.67###169.14 ± 18.23###200.19 ± 19.42#
AAW157.69 ± 15.98###181.79 ± 19.45##209.19 ± 21.03#
BCDA165.09 ± 16.12###194.84 ± 17.67##213.04 ± 22.43#
AWIT154.89 ± 17.13###187.84 ± 18.37##212.84 ± 19.35#

Note. This result is the average of three parallel experiments. vs normal; , , vs model.

Durg/dose80 μg/mL40 μg/mL20 μg/mL

Normal15.00 ± 1.78
Model20.43 ± 2.32
Indomethacin10.38 ± 2.12##12.52 ± 2.65##17.87 ± 1.85#
AAW10.78 ± 2.56##15.72 ± 2.57#19.10 ± 2.58
BCDA15.05 ± 1.74#18.99 ± 2.9722.19 ± 2.94
AWIT10.88 ± 1.97##12.15 ± 2.72##22.52 ± 2.93

Note. This result is the average of three parallel experiments. vs normal; , vs model.

4. Conclusions

The chemical constituents of incense smoke from AAW, BCDA, AWIT, AS, and EAWIT were analyzed by GC-MS, and 484 compounds were identified. Aromatic compounds were the main chemical constituents of incense smoke from AAW, BCDA, and AWIT. A total of 61 aromatic compounds from AWIT, representing 54.837%, were also found in AAW and BCDA. All experimental data suggested that aromatic compounds were the main chemical constituents in agarwood smoke and that some chromone derivatives could be cracked into LACs at high temperature. Furthermore, agarwood incense smoke showed anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced TNF-α and IL-1α release in RAW264.7 cells.

Data Availability

The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest in any form.

Authors’ Contributions

De-Qian Peng, Zhang-Xin Yu contributed equally to this work.

Acknowledgments

This research work was financially supported by the Natural Science  Foundation of Hainan Province (no. 217291), the Science and Technology  Programs from Hainan Province of China  (no. ZDKJ2016004), and the  Major  Science  and Technology  Innovation  Project  of  the  Chinese  Academy of  Medical  Sciences  (no. 2016-I2M-2-003). The authors are grateful to Hai-Yan Wang (an English teacher) of Qiqihar University and Ass. Prof. Lu-Jia Mao of Hainan Medical University for revising the manuscript.

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