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International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Volume 2010, Article ID 140539, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2010/140539
Research Article

Alzheimer's Disease: A Pathogenetic Autoimmune Disorder Caused by Herpes Simplex in a Gene-Dependent Manner

Polygenic Pathways, Flat 4, 20 Upper Maze Hill, Saint Leonard's on Sea, East Sussex TN38 OLG, UK

Received 23 July 2010; Revised 27 September 2010; Accepted 22 October 2010

Academic Editor: Paula Moreira

Copyright © 2010 C. J. Carter. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Herpes simplex is implicated in Alzheimer's disease and viral infection produces Alzheimer's disease like pathology in mice. The virus expresses proteins containing short contiguous amino acid stretches (5–9aa “vatches” = viralmatches) homologous to APOE4, clusterin, PICALM, and complement receptor 1, and to over 100 other gene products relevant to Alzheimer's disease, which are also homologous to proteins expressed by other pathogens implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Such homology, reiterated at the DNA level, suggests that gene association studies have been tracking infection, as well as identifying key genes, demonstrating a role for pathogens as causative agents. Vatches may interfere with the function of their human counterparts, acting as dummy ligands, decoy receptors, or via interactome interference. They are often immunogenic, and antibodies generated in response to infection may target their human counterparts, producing protein knockdown, or generating autoimmune responses that may kill the neurones in which the human homologue resides, a scenario supported by immune activation in Alzheimer's disease. These data may classify Alzheimer's disease as an autoimmune disorder created by pathogen mimicry of key Alzheimer's disease-related proteins. It may well be prevented by vaccination and regular pathogen detection and elimination, and perhaps stemmed by immunosuppression or antibody adsorption-related therapies.