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International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of Alzheimer's disease.
International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Prognosis of Biomarker of Alzheimer’s Disease in the Function of the Retina and Secondary Molecular Structure Variation of the Retina and Brain
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most serious neurodegenerative diseases in the globe. As a result, there is an acute need to discover indications that allow for early disease detection. There is growing scientific data showing the similarities between the eye and other central nervous system components, suggesting that information obtained in ophthalmic research might be valuable in the study and diagnosis of AD. Fifty male albino Wistar rats were separated into five groups: the first group served as control, and the other four groups of animals were administrated aluminium chloride (AlCl3) in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively. Insights into the function of the retina by electroretinogram (ERG) and the changes thought to have occurred in the molecular structure of the retina and brain using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as a result of AD progression induced by AlCl3 in rats were done. Moreover, the measurement of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) was done. After 6 and 8 weeks of AlCl3 injection, there was a substantial reduction () in a- and b-wave amplitudes and a significant rise () in implicit time compared to controls. A significant elevation () of AchE content was observed after 4, 6, and 8 weeks. FTIR revealed a significant increase () of β-turn and β-sheet content associated with significant decrease () of α-helix content for all groups administrated with AlCl3. Our findings suggest that retinal biomarkers such as ERG of the retina may be used as a screening tool for detection of AD. Secondary structural changes in the proteins of the retina and the brain were similar in AD rats’ model and precede retinal dysfunction.
A Comprehensive Investigation of the Potential Role of Lipoproteins and Metabolite Profile as Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Disease Compared to the Known CSF Biomarkers
Introduction. While cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) core biomarkers have been considered diagnostic biomarkers for a long time, special attention has been recently dedicated to lipoproteins and metabolites that could be potentially associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neurodegeneration. Herein, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the levels of CSF core biomarkers including Aβ-42, TAU, and P-TAU and plasma lipoproteins and metabolites of patients with AD from the baseline cohort of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. Method. Using the ADNI database, fourteen subclasses of lipoproteins as well as a number of lipids and fatty acids and low-molecular metabolites including amino acids, ketone bodies, and glycolysis-related metabolites in blood samples were measured as potential noninvasive markers, and their association with the CSF core biomarkers was statistically investigated controlling for age and gender. Results. A total number of 251 AD subjects were included, among whom 71 subjects were negative for the Apo-E ε4 allele and 150 were positive. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding cognitive assessments, CSF core biomarkers, and lipoproteins and metabolites except the level of Aβ-42 () and phenylalanine (), which were higher in the negative group. CSF TAU and P-TAU were significantly correlated with medium and small HDL in the negative group, and with extremely large VLDL in the positive group. Our results also indicated significant correlations of metabolites including unsaturated fatty acids, glycerol, and leucine with CSF core biomarkers. Conclusion. Based on our findings, a number of lipoproteins and metabolites were associated with CSF core biomarkers of AD. These correlations showed some differences in Apo-E ε4 positive and negative groups, which reminds the role of Apo-E gene status in the pathophysiology of AD development. However, further research is warranted to explore the exact association of lipoproteins and other metabolites with AD core biomarkers and pathology.
Cyclic Glycine-Proline Improves Memory and Reduces Amyloid Plaque Load in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition that is pathologically characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Animal models of AD have been useful in understanding the disease process and in investigating the effects of compounds on pathology and behavior. APP/PS1 mice develop amyloid plaques and show memory impairment. Cyclic glycine-proline (cGP) is a cyclic dipeptide that is likely produced from a tripeptide, glycine-proline-glutamate, which itself is generated after proteolytic cleavage of insulin-like growth factor-1. Here, we show that cGP improves spatial memory and reduces amyloid plaque burden in APP/PS1 mice. The results thus suggest that cGP could potentially provide beneficial effects in AD.
CSF-Targeted Proteomics Indicate Amyloid-Beta Ratios in Patients with Alzheimer’s Dementia Spectrum
Background. According to recent studies, amyloid-β (Aβ) isoforms as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers have remarkable predictive value for cognitive decline in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Herein, we aimed to investigate the correlations between several targeted proteomics in CSF samples with Aβ ratios and cognitive scores in patients in AD spectrum to search for potential early diagnostic utility. Methods. A total of 719 participants were found eligible for inclusion. Patients were then categorized into cognitively normal (CN), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD and underwent an assessment of Aβ and proteomics. Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS), and Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) were used for further cognitive assessment. The Aβ42, Aβ42/Aβ40, and Aβ42/38 ratios were considered as means of comparison to identify those peptides corresponding significantly to these established biomarkers and cognitive scores. The diagnostic utility of the IASNTQSR, VAELEDEK, VVSSIEQK, GDSVVYGLR, EPVAGDAVPGPK, and QETLPSK was assessed. Results. All investigated peptides corresponded significantly to Aβ42 in controls. In those with MCI, VAELEDEK and EPVAGDAVPGPK were significantly correlated with Aβ42 ( value < 0.001). Additionally, IASNTQSR, VVSSIEQK, GDSVVYGLR, and QETLPSK were significantly correlated with Aβ42/Aβ40 and Aβ42/38 ( value < 0.001) in this group. This group of peptides similarly corresponded to Aβ ratios in those with AD. Eventually, IASNTQSR, VAELEDEK, and VVSSIEQK were significantly associated with CDR, ADAS-11, and ADAS-13, particularly in MCI group. Conclusion. Our research suggests potential early diagnostic and prognostic utilities for certain peptides extracted from CSF-targeted proteomics research. The ethical approval of ADNI is available at ClinicalTrials.gov with Identifier: NCT00106899.
Trends in Healthcare Resource Use Preceding Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia
Introduction. An Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia diagnosis is often preceded by an extended period of cognitive decline. Few studies have examined healthcare resource use (HRU) during an extended period before AD dementia diagnosis. Methods. In a historical claims-based cohort study, propensity score-matched cohorts of patients with and without AD dementia were observed for a 5-year prediagnosis period and a 1-year postdiagnosis period. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and HRU were compared between groups. Results. Individuals in the AD dementia group displayed a greater level of medical complexity in the year before diagnosis of AD dementia relative to those in the matched cohort. Both all-cause and AD dementia complication-related HRU increased gradually, with a marked spike at the time of initial AD dementia diagnosis. Discussion. Further research into the natural history of patients with AD dementia is necessary to improve identification of early AD and to better understand its broader impact.
Multimer Detection System-Oligomerized Amyloid Beta (MDS-OAβ): A Plasma-Based Biomarker Differentiates Alzheimer’s Disease from Other Etiologies of Dementia
With emerging amyloid therapies, documentation of the patient’s amyloid status to confirm the etiology of a clinical diagnosis is warranted prior to instituting amyloid-based therapy. The Multimer Detection System-Oligomeric Amyloid-β (MDS-OAβ) is a noninvasive blood-based biomarker utilized to measure Aβ oligomerization tendency. We determined the difference in MDS-OAβ ratio across the groups: (a) no cognitive impairment or subjective cognitive impairment (NCI/SCI), (b) Alzheimer’s disease (AD), (c) non-AD, and (d) mixed Alzheimer’s disease-Vascular dementia (AD-VaD). MDS-OAβ level was not significantly different between AD and mixed AD-VaD, but both groups were significantly different from the NCI/SCI and from the non-AD group. An MDS-OAβ level of >1 could potentially indicate clinical variants of AD or mixed pathology (AD-VaD).