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International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Volume 2010, Article ID 638379, 3 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2010/638379
Case Report

Neuroinflammation Screening in Immunotherapy Trials against Alzheimer's Disease

1Memory Clinic, M51, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
2Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, 431 80 Mölndal, Sweden

Received 26 August 2010; Accepted 24 November 2010

Academic Editor: Akihiko Takashima

Copyright © 2010 Niels Andreasen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Due to side effects in the form of meningoencephalitis in the interrupted phase II AN1792 trial of active antiamyloid β(Aβ) immunization against Alzheimer's disease (AD), there has been concern that anti-Aβ immunization may cause destructive neuroinflammation. Here, we report on two patients fulfilling clinical AD criteria who were diagnosed with Lyme neuroborreliosis during screening before inclusion in anti-Aβ immunotherapy trials. The two cases illustrate the necessity of careful biochemical screening for neuroinflammatory/neuroinfectious conditions before an AD diagnosis is made and before clinical AD patients are included in trials of therapy that could impact the immune system. Should the two cases have been included and deteriorated, additional investigations might have led to the erroneous conclusion that therapy-induced meningoencephalitis had occurred.