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International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Volume 2011, Article ID 342980, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/342980
Review Article

Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease: From Central Nervous System to Periphery?

Unit of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Critical Care Medcine and Surgery, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence, Italy

Received 15 October 2010; Accepted 15 November 2010

Academic Editor: Benedetta Nacmias

Copyright © 2011 Enrico Mossello et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most frequent form of dementia and represents one of the main causes of disability among older subjects. Up to now, the diagnosis of AD has been made according to clinical criteria. However, the use of such criteria does not allow an early diagnosis, as pathological alterations may be apparent many years before the clear-cut clinical picture. An early diagnosis is even more valuable to develop new treatments, potentially interfering with the pathogenetic process. During the last decade, several neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters have been introduced to allow an early and accurate detection of AD patients, and, recently, they have been included among research criteria for AD diagnosis. However, their use in clinical practice suffers from limitations both in accuracy and availability. The increasing amount of knowledge about peripheral biomarkers will possibly allow the future identification of reliable and easily available diagnostic tests.