Table 4: Comparison of education, gender, test language, and MoCAChLA score among the three age groups. 
 Variables  Age 50–59 years (n = 584)  Age 60–74 years (n = 467)  Age 75–100 years (n = 141)  P value^{1}  Adjusted P value^{2} 
 Education in years, mean ± SD  11.4 ± 3.6 
11.9 ± 4.2  12 ± 4.4  0.06   Female, no. (%)  384 (65.8)  280 (60.0)  70 (49.6)  0.001   Testing language, no. (%)       Cantonese  301 (51.5)  233 (49.9)  41 (29.1)  <0.0001   Mandarin  283 (48.5)  230 (49.3)  99 (70.2)    Taiwanese  0 (0)  4 (0.9)  1 (0.7)    Unadjusted MoCA, mean ± SD  24.4 ± 3.8  23.9 ± 4.2  21.3 ± 5.1  <0.0001   Adjusted MoCA^{2}, lsmean ± SE  23.6 ± 0.6  22.8 ± 0.6  20.1 ± 0.6   <0.0001 


^{
1}P value obtained from KruskalWallis test for continuous variables, from Chisquare test for gender, from Fisher exact test for testing language. ^{
2}P value obtained from nonparametric analysis of covariance with adjustment for education, gender, and testing language.
