International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease / 2012 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Hormone Replacement Therapy and Risk for Neurodegenerative Diseases

Table 2

Randomized clinical trials of HRT and verbal memory.

Study (reference)Hormone treatment usedSample size AgeOutcome measureOverall findings

Bagger et al., [18]E2 2 mg + varied progestins versus placebo for 2 years26154.1Cognitive screening taskFollowup study of women randomized 5, 10 and 15 years earlier to HRT or placebo during clinical trials. Logistic regression showed that for women who received HRT for 2-3 years, the relative risk for cognitive impairment was significant decreased by 64% compared to the never users. Long-term/current users of HT also demonstrated a decreased risk of 66% compared to the never users.
Joffe et al. [19]E2 0.5 mg versus placebo for 12 months5240–60Verbal memory; Functional MRIWomen on E2 had fewer perseverative errors during verbal recall when placebo-treated women. Women on E2 also showed greater retention of new information without interference.
LeBlanc et al., [20]Estradiol 2 mg versus placebo for 2 months3253.26 (treatment) 52.08 (placebo)Verbal memoryWomen on estrogen therapy did not show higher cognitive performance on verbal memory tasks compared to women on placebo.
Maki et al., [21] (CEE) + medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) versus placebo for 4 months15851.9 (treatment) 52.4 (placebo)Verbal memoryModest negative effects on verbal memory (short- and long-term recall) were found in the HRT versus placebo group.
Dumas et al. [22]E2 2 mg versus placebo for 3 months2250-62 (younger) 70–81 (older)Verbal memoryAll women were administered the antimuscarinic drug scopaline (SCOP) or placebo. E2 pretreatment significantly decreased the anticholinergic drug-induced impairments on verbal memory task for the younger group only compared to the older group.
Tierney et al. [23]E2 1 mg versus placebo for 2 years142 61–87Verbal memoryWomen on E2 who scored at or above average showed less decline in delay verbal memory compared to women on placebo.
Silverman et al. [24]17β-estradiol (E2) versus conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) versus CEE + P for 1 year5350–65Verbal memory; FDG-PETWomen on E2 had significantly higher verbal memory than CEE and showed higher metabolism in Wernicke’s and auditory association. E2 was also associated with higher metabolism in mesial and inferior lateral temporal regions and inferior frontal cortex compared to PE.

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