About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 674142, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/674142
Review Article

Shilajit: A Natural Phytocomplex with Potential Procognitive Activity

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Neurosciences, International Center for Biomedicine (ICC) and University of Chile, Millennium Building, Las Encinas 3370, Ñuñoa, 780023 Santiago, Chile

Received 22 August 2011; Accepted 17 December 2011

Academic Editor: Yoram Barak

Copyright © 2012 Carlos Carrasco-Gallardo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Cornejo, J. M. Jiménez, L. Caballero, F. Melo, and R. B. Maccioni, “Fulvic acid inhibits aggregation and promotes disassembly of tau fibrils associated with alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 143–153, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. S. Ghosal, “Chemistry of shilajit, an immunomodulatory Ayurvedic rasayan,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 1285–1288, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  3. R. N. Chopra, I. C. Chopra, K. L. Handa, and K. D. Kapoor, In Indigenous Drugs of India, U.N. Dhar & Sons, Calcutta, India, 1958.
  4. S. P. Agarwal, R. Khanna, R. Karmarkar, M. K. Anwer, and R. K. Khar, “Shilajit: a review,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 401–405, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Ghosal, J. P. Reddy, and V. K. Lal, “Shilajit I: chemical constituents,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 772–773, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Khanna, M. Witt, M. Khalid Anwer, S. P. Agarwal, and B. P. Koch, “Spectroscopic characterization of fulvic acids extracted from the rock exudate shilajit,” Organic Geochemistry, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 1719–1724, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Mittal, D. Kaushik, V. Gupta, P. Bansal, and S. Khokra, “Therapeutic potencial of “Shilajit Rasayana”—A Review,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 47–49, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  8. K. M. S. Islam, A. Schumacher, and J. M. Gropp, “Humic acid substances in animal agriculture,” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol. 4, pp. 126–134, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  9. A. V. Vucskits, I. Hullár, A. Bersényi, E. Andrásofszky, M. Kulcsár, and J. Szabó, “Effect of fulvic and humic acids on performance, immune response and thyroid function in rats,” Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 721–728, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. A. Schepetkin, G. Xie, M. A. Jutila, and M. T. Quinn, “Complement-fixing activity of fulvic acid from shilajit and other natural sources,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 373–384, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Y. C. Kong, P. P. H. But, K. H. Ng et al., “Chemical studies on a Nepalese Panacea—shilajit (I),” International Journal of Crude Drug Research, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 179–182, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  12. S. Ghosal, J. Lal, S. K. Singh, R. K. Goel, A. K. Jaiwal, and S. K. Bhattacharya, “The need for formulation of shilajit by its isolated active constituents,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 211–216, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Ghosal, B. Mukherjee, and S. K. Bhattacharya, “Shilajit—a comparative study of the ancient and the modern scientific findings,” Indian Journal of Indigenous Medicine, vol. 17, pp. 1–10, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  14. S. Ghosal, S. K. Singh, Y. Kumar et al., “Shilajit. 3. Antiulcerogenic of fulvic acids and 4-methoxy-6-carbomethoxybiphenyl isolated from shilaji,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 187–191, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Ghosal, S. Lata, Y. Kumar, B. Gaur, and N. Misra, “Interaction of shilajit with biogenic free radicals,” Indian Journal of Chemistry B, vol. 34, pp. 596–602, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  16. S. K. Bhattacharya and A. P. Sen, “Effects of shilajit on biogenic free radicals,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 56–59, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. K. Jaiswal and S. K. Bhattacharya, “Effects of shilajit on memory, anxiety and brain monoamines in rats,” Indian Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 24, pp. 12–17, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  18. S. K. Bhattacharya, “Shilajit attenuates streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus and decrease in pancreatic islet superoxide dismutase activity in rats,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 41–44, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. Wang, Z. Wang, A. Peng, J. Hou, and W. Xin, “Interaction between fulvic acids of different origins and active oxygen radicals,” Science in China, Series C, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 267–275, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Ghosal, J. Lal, S. K. Singh et al., “Mast cell protecting effects of shilajit and its constituents,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 249–252, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. B. Acharya, M. H. Frotan, R. K. Goel, S. K. Tripathi, and P. K. Das, “Pharmacological actions of shilajit,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 775–777, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Shalini and R. Srivastava, “Antifungal activity screening and hplc analysis of crude extract from Tectona grandis, shilajit, Valeriana wallachi,” Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 218–229, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. A. Mirza, S. P. Agarwal, M. A. Rahman et al., “Role of humic acid on oral drug delivery of an antiepileptic drug,” Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 310–319, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. H. Meena, H. K. Pandey, M. C. Arya, and Z. Ahmed, “Shilajit: a panacea for high-altitude problems,” International Journal of Ayurveda Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 37–40, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  25. E. Wilson, G. V. Rajamanickam, G. P. Dubey et al., “Review on shilajit used in traditional Indian medicine,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. D. Rowland, “Vitamin/mineral composition,” US Patent no. 5405613,1995.
  27. S. Ghosal, “Herbo-Mineral compositions,” US Patent application no. 20030198695, 2002.
  28. S. Ghosal, “Process for preparing purified shilajit from native shilajit,” US Patent no. 6440436, 2002.
  29. S. Ghosal, “Delivery system for pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic ingredient,” US Patent no. 6558712, 2003.
  30. R. B. Maccioni, L. Quiñones, I. Saavedra, and R. Sandoval, “Nutraceutical composition that comprises extract of shilajit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 and the use thereof for preventing and/or treating neurodegenerative disease and/or the cognitive deterioration association with cerebral aging,” WO 2011/041920. PCT/CL2010/000043 April, 14. 2011.
  31. R. B. Saper, R. S. Phillips, A. Sehgal et al., “Lead, mercury, and arsenic in US- and Indian-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines sold via the internet,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 300, no. 8, pp. 915–923, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. N. Kales and R. B. Saper, “Ayurvedic lead poisoning: an under-recognized, international problem,” Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 379–381, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Singh, K. K. Mukherjee, K. D. Gill, and S. J. S. Flora, “Lead-induced peripheral neuropathy following ayurvedic medication,” Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 408–410, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus