Cognitive Deterioration and Associated Pathology Induced by Chronic Low-Level
Aluminum Ingestion in a Translational Rat Model Provides an Explanation of
Alzheimer's Disease, Tests for Susceptibility and Avenues for Treatment
Staging of aged rat (upper row) and aged human (lower row) hippocampal CA1 neurons stained for Al [30, 31] show progressive Al accumulation accompanied by cytopathological change. Stage 0: the entire cell appears Al-negative and has normal morphology; this stage is not observed in the aged human specimens. Stage I: magenta nucleolus, no other staining for aluminum. Stage II: magenta nucleolus in pink nucleoplasm with visible chromatin; the cytoplasm is blue. Stage III: magenta nucleolus in an elongated or irregularly shaped purple nucleus. The cytoplasm is blue. Many apical dendrites from this stage onwards have a serpentine appearance. Stage IV: the magenta staining appears in the elongated nucleus which now shows less structural detail; the shrunken cytoplasm is still blue. Stage V: purple to magenta staining appears throughout the nucleus and cytoplasm. Cell shape is distorted and the axon and dendrites are disrupted. Magnification bar (MB) = 15 μm, Reproduced from .