Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 7482094, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7482094
Research Article

Major Depressive Symptoms Increase 3-Year Mortality Rate in Patients with Mild Dementia

1Research Unit for General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, J.B. Winsløws Vej 9, 5000 Odense C, Denmark
2Department of Mental Health, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Skovbakken 2, 6000 Kolding, Denmark
3Danish Dementia Research Centre, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
4Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, P.O. Box 2099, 1014 Copenhagen K, Denmark

Correspondence should be addressed to Jindong Ding Petersen; kd.uds.htlaeh@gnodnij

Received 21 December 2016; Revised 7 March 2017; Accepted 23 March 2017; Published 6 April 2017

Academic Editor: Francesco Panza

Copyright © 2017 Jindong Ding Petersen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. M. Fiest, N. Jetté, J. I. Roberts et al., “The prevalence and incidence of dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, vol. 43, supplement 1, pp. S3–S50, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. L. Price, “New perspectives on Alzheimer's disease,” Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol. 9, pp. 489–512, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Alzheimer's Association, Alzheimer's and Dementia Basics Alzheimer's Association, Alzheimer's Association, 2016, http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_what_is_alzheimers.asp.
  4. M. Prince, A. Wimo, M. Guerchet, G. Ali, Y. Wu, and M. Prina, World Alzheimer Report 2015, Alzheimer's Disease International (ADI), 2015.
  5. D. Enache, B. Winblad, and D. Aarsland, “Depression in dementia: epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment,” Current Opinion in Psychiatry, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 461–472, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Chi, J.-T. Yu, M.-S. Tan, and L. Tan, “Depression in Alzheimer's disease: epidemiology, mechanisms, and management,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 739–755, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. Gonzalez-Salvador, C. G. Lyketsos, A. Baker et al., “Quality of life in dementia patients in long-term care,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 181–189, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. T. González-Salvador, C. Arango, C. G. Lyketsos, and A. C. Barba, “The stress and psychological morbidity of the Alzheimer patient caregiver,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 701–710, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. G. Lyketsos, C. Steele, L. Baker et al., “Major and minor depression in Alzheimer's disease: prevalence and impact,” The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 556–561, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Cherbuin, S. Kim, and K. J. Anstey, “Dementia risk estimates associated with measures of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” BMJ Open, vol. 5, no. 12, Article ID e008853, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. Gracia-García, C. de-la-Cámara, J. Santabárbara et al., “Depression and incident alzheimer disease: the impact of disease severity,” The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 119–129, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Mattisson, M. Bogren, L. Brådvik, and V. Horstmann, “Mortality of subjects with mood disorders in the Lundby community cohort: a follow-up over 50 years,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 178, pp. 98–106, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. R. Walker, R. E. McGee, and B. G. Druss, “Mortality in mental disorders and global disease burden implications: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” JAMA Psychiatry, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 334–341, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. E. Dewey and P. Saz, “Dementia, cognitive impairment and mortality in persons aged 65 and over living in the community: a systematic review of the literature,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 751–761, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. L. Arfken, P. A. Lichtenberg, and M. E. Tancer, “Cognitive impairment and depression predict mortality in medically ill older adults,” The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. M152–M156, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Rao, A. Suliman, S. Vuik, P. Aylin, and A. Darzi, “Outcomes of dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis of hospital administrative database studies,” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 66, pp. 198–204, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. White, P. Zaninotto, K. Walters et al., “Duration of depressive symptoms and mortality risk: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA),” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 208, no. 4, pp. 337–342, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. H. Connors, D. Ames, K. Boundy et al., “Predictors of mortality in Dementia: The PRIME Study,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 967–974, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. Markkula, T. Härkänen, T. Nieminen et al., “Prognosis of depressive disorders in the general population- results from the longitudinal Finnish Health 2011 Study,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 190, pp. 687–696, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Cuijpers, N. Vogelzangs, J. Twisk, A. Kleiboer, J. Li, and B. W. Penninx, “Differential mortality rates in major and subthreshold depression: meta-analysis of studies that measured both,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 202, no. 1, pp. 22–27, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. A. Khundakar and A. J. Thomas, “Neuropathology of depression in Alzheimer's disease: current knowledge and the potential for new treatments,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 27–41, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. Bellelli, G. B. Frisoni, R. Turco, and M. Trabucchi, “Depressive symptoms combined with dementia affect 12-months survival in elderly patients after rehabilitation post-hip fracture surgery,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1073–1077, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. K. Georgakis, F. C. Papadopoulos, A. D. Protogerou et al., “Comorbidity of cognitive impairment and late-life depression increase mortality,” Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 195–204, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Drageset, G. E. Eide, and A. H. Ranhoff, “Anxiety and depression and mortality among cognitively intact nursing home residents with and without a cancer diagnosis: a 5-year follow-up study,” Cancer Nursing, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. E68–E74, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. K. Georgakis, F. C. Papadopoulos, A. D. Protogerou et al., “Comorbidity of cognitive impairment and late-life depression increase mortality: results from a Cohort of Community-Dwelling Elderly Individuals in Rural Greece,” Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 195–204, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. E. González-Vélez, M. J. Forjaz, C. Giraldez-García et al., “Quality of life by proxy and mortality in institutionalized older adults with Dementia,” Geriatrics and Gerontology International, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 38–44, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. T. T. Phung, F. B. Waldorff, D. V. Buss et al., “A three-year follow-up on the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their caregivers: the multicentre, rater-blinded, randomised Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study (DAISY),” BMJ Open, vol. 3, no. 11, Article ID e003584, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association, 4th edition, 1994.
  29. G. McKhann, D. Drachman, M. Folstein, R. Katzman, D. Price, and E. M. Stadlan, “Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's Disease,” Neurology, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 939–944, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  30. I. G. McKeith, D. W. Dickson, J. Lowe et al., “Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies: third report of the DLB consortium,” Neurology, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 1863–1872, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. S. Alexopoulos, R. C. Abrams, R. C. Young, and C. A. Shamoian, “Cornell scale for depression in dementia,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 271–284, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. B. Waldorff, D. V. Buss, A. Eckermann et al., “Efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease: the multicentre, rater blinded, randomised Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study (DAISY),” BMJ, vol. 345, no. 7870, Article ID e4693, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. B. Pedersen, “The Danish civil registration system,” Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 22–25, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. World Health Organization (WHO), BMI Classification World Health Organization, World Health Organization, 2016, http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp?introPage=intro_3.html.
  35. M. F. Folstein, S. E. Folstein, and P. R. McHugh, “‘Mini-mental state’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 189–198, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. E. Charlson, P. Pompei, K. L. Ales, and C. R. MacKenzie, “A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation,” Journal of Chronic Diseases, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 373–383, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. B. R. Reed, W. J. Jagust, and L. Coulter, “Anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease: relationships to depression, cognitive function, and cerebral perfusion,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 231–244, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. G. Logsdon, L. E. Gibbons, S. M. McCurry, and L. Teri, “Quality of life in Alzheimer's Disease: patient and caregiver reports,” Journal of Mental Health and Aging, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 21–32, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  39. D. Galasko, D. Bennett, M. Sano et al., “An inventory to assess activities of daily living for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study,” Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, vol. 11, supplement 2, pp. S33–S39, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. E. Lara, J. M. Haro, M.-X. Tang, J. Manly, and Y. Stern, “Exploring the excess mortality due to depressive symptoms in a community-based sample: the role of Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 202, pp. 163–170, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. J. G. E. Janzing, J. M. P. Bouwens, R. J. Teunisse, M. A. Van't Hof, and F. G. Zitman, “The relationship between depression and mortality in elderly subjects with less severe dementia,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 979–983, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. L. Byers, K. E. Covinsky, D. E. Barnes, and K. Yaffe, “Dysthymia and depression increase risk of dementia and mortality among older veterans,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 664–672, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G.-H. Suh, B. K. Yeon, A. Shah, and J.-Y. Lee, “Mortality in Alzheimer's disease: a comparative prospective Korean study in the community and nursing homes,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 26–34, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. White, P. Zaninotto, K. Walters et al., “Duration of depressive symptoms and mortality risk: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA),” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 208, no. 4, pp. 337–342, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Y. Winter, A. Korchounov, T. V. Zhukova, and N. E. Bertschi, “Depression in elderly patients with Alzheimer dementia or vascular dementia and its influence on their quality of life,” Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 27–32, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. I. Andreakou, A. A. Papadopoulos, D. B. Panagiotakos, and D. Niakas, “Assessment of health-related quality of life for caregivers of Alzheimer’s disease patients,” International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 2016, Article ID 9213968, 7 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar