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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2007, Article ID 17426, 9 pages
Application Article

Localization and Tracking of Passive RFID Tags Based on Direction Estimation

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Laboratory, Center for Advanced Communications, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085, USA

Received 1 March 2007; Accepted 19 October 2007

Academic Editor: Hans-Erik Nilsson

Copyright © 2007 Yimin Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Radio frequency identification (RFID) is poised for growth as businesses and governments explore applications implementing RFID. The RFID technology will continue to evolve to meet new demands for human and target location and tracking. In particular, there are increasing needs to locate and track multiple RFID-tagged items that are closely spaced. As a result, localization and tracking techniques with higher accuracy yet low implementation complexity are required. This paper examines the applicability of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation methods to the localization and tracking problems of passive RFID tags. Different scenarios of stationary and moving targets are considered. It is shown through performance analysis and simulation results that simple DOA estimation methods can be used to provide satisfactory localization performance.