Article of the Year 2020
Antenna Optimization Design Based on Deep Gaussian Process ModelRead the full article
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation publishes research on the design, analysis, and applications of antennas, along with studies related to the propagation of electromagnetic waves through space, air, and other media.
Chief Editor, Professor Koziel, engages in research focused on surrogate-based modeling and optimization including space mapping technology for engineering design at Reykjavik University.
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Neural Network-Guided Sparse Recovery for Interrupted-Sampling Repeater Jamming Suppression
Interrupted-sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ) is a new type of DRFM-based jamming designed for linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals. By intercepting the radar signal slice and retransmitting it many times, ISRJ can obtain radar coherent processing gain so that multiple false target groups can be formed after pulse compression (PC). According to the distribution characteristic of the echo signal and the coherence of ISRJ to radar signal, a new method for ISRJ suppression is proposed in this study. In this method, the position of the real target is determined using a gated recurrent unit neural network (GRU-Net), and the real target can be, therefore, reconstructed by adaptive filtering in the sparse representation of the echo signal based on the target locating result. The reconstruction result contains only the real target, and the false target groups formed by ISRJ are suppressed completely. The target locating accuracy of the proposed GRU-Net can reach 92.75%. Simulations have proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.
High-Isolation UWB MIMO Antenna with Multiple X-Shaped Stubs Loaded between Ground Planes
A miniaturized ultra-wideband multiple-input multiple-output (UWB MIMO) two-port antenna with high isolation based on FR4 is designed in this article. The size of the antenna is only 18 × 28 × 1.6 mm3. The MIMO antenna consists of two identical antenna elements symmetrically placed on the same dielectric substrate in opposite directions. By loading three crossed X-shaped stubs between two unconnected ground planes, high isolation and good impedance matching are achieved. The working frequency band measured by this UWB MIMO antenna is 1.9–14 GHz, and the isolation is kept above 20.2 dB in the whole analysis frequency band. Good radiation characteristics as well as envelope correlation coefficient (ECC, <0.09), mean effective gain (MEG), and channel capacity loss (CCL) in the passband meet the requirements of the application, which can be applied to the UWB wireless communication system. To verify the applicability of the proposed method for enhancing the isolation between antenna elements, the two-port antenna structure was extended to a four-port antenna structure. In the case of loading the X-shaped stubs to connect to the ground plane, the isolation of the antenna is maintained above 15.5 dB within 1.7–14 GHz.
Aerodynamic Characteristics of Radar Antenna in Stationary and Azimuthal Rotational Motion
To study the effects of aerodynamic loads on the aerodynamic characteristics of stationary and azimuthally rotating antennas, wind tunnel force tests are conducted using solid and porous plate antennas. The variation of aerodynamic coefficient with azimuth angle is obtained when the antenna is stationary and azimuthal rotation, and the results are compared with those from numerical simulations. The variation in the aerodynamic coefficients with respect to the azimuth angle is found to be sinusoidal for both the solid and porous plate antennas rotating in azimuth. Compared with the antenna stationary, quantitative analysis indicates that the rotational motion increases the maximum value and root mean square of the aerodynamic coefficient. For solid plate antenna, |Cx|_max, |Cmy|_max, and |Cmz|_max increase by 41.6%, 15.0%, and 47.3%, respectively; Cx_rms, Cmy_rms, and Cmz_rms increase by 19.0%, 20.0%, and 19.1%, respectively. For porous plate antenna, |Cx|_max, |Cmy|_max, and |Cmz|_max increase by 30.6%, 71.4%, and 40.9%, respectively; Cx_rms, Cmy_rms, and Cmz_rms increase by 22.9%, 50%, and 20%, respectively. The wind tunnel tests verify the feasibility of using numerical simulations to obtain the flow field results. By analyzing the surface pressure coefficient and vortex core track distribution, the effects of azimuthal rotation on the aerodynamic characteristics of the antenna are further clarified.
A Miniaturized Planar Monopole Antenna Based on a Coupling Structure for Compact Mobile Internet of Things (IoT) and Electric Vehicles (EVs) Device Applications in 5G, LTE, WLAN, WiMAX, Sirius/XM Radio, V2X, and DSRC Wireless Systems
A miniaturized internal antenna with monopole structure is constituted, including three radiating strips of a compact prototype and a back-coupling pad to improve the impedance matching, which achieves a wide bandwidth of 2.972 GHz between the operating frequencies of 2315–5285 MHz, and is introduced and researched. There is an urgent need for a complete frequency-continuous and large bandwidth design in the current wireless communication design to achieve a multimode, multifrequency, physical phenomenon design with large bandwidth and continuous operating frequency. The recommended antenna provides a broadband operation in an electric vehicles (EVs) and Internet of Things (IoT) devices application embedded in the wireless communication standard for 5G, LTE, V2X, WLAN, WiMAX, Sirius/XM Radio, V2X, and DSRC to support the multiband application. This design is embedded side edge of overall placement in the device and is integrated applicable to the trend of heterogeneous wireless multiple access networks in electric vehicle and Internet of Things system devices, which covered the 5G with supporting the band of n7/n38/n40/n53/n77/n78/n79/n90, the 4G with supporting the band of 7/38/40/41/42/43/48/67, the V2X and DSRC for the operating frequencies between 2500 and 5000 MHz, the Sirius/XM Radio for the operating frequencies of 2320–2345 MHz, the ISM band of WiFi and BT covering the band of 2450–2483.5 and 5150–5350 MHz, and the WiMAX also supporting the band of 2300–2690 and 3400–3690 MHz. Moreover, the compact antenna manufactured an FR4 material with the antenna area of 5 × 10 × 0.8 mm3 and the ground area of 33.5 × 10 × 0.8 mm3. The proposed design better benefits a narrow space on the PCB with a low profile and is easy to make with a circuit board design.
A Super Wideband Directional Compact Vivaldi Antenna for Lower 5G and Satellite Applications
In this paper, a super wide band (SWB) Vivaldi antenna has been proposed for lower 5G bands in Sub-6 GHz and satellite applications (S, C, X, Ku, and K band) using various performance improvement techniques. In the presented Vivaldi antenna, different slots are applied not only to increase the gain and directivity but also to get operating frequency at the intended specific frequency range. All dimensions of those slots were chosen by using the sweep parameter method. Ten corrugated side slots, two circular slots, and one via have been used to enhance the performance especially bandwidth and gain of the antenna. At the edge of wireless communication, we want to enhance two key aspects within the communication systems: the quality of service and the cost. The proposed antenna incorporates a simple structure and small size with dimensions of 45 × 35 × 0.79 mm3. Thus, after design, optimization, and simulation, the antenna produces a good reflection coefficient over the very large operating bandwidth of 23.19 GHz, 1 < VSWR < 2, maximum gain of 10.2 dBi, and average radiation efficiency of above 90%, which can be recommended as a suitable antenna for lower 5G as well as satellite applications. The antenna is designed, simulated, and analyzed by using computer simulation technology microwave studio (CST-MWS). Finally, the performance of the Vivaldi antenna has been validated by FEKO and HFSS software, and we achieved a very good matching among the results.
Design of an S-Band Phased Array with Modified Dipoles
A wideband, low cross-polarization, high-gain, and wide-angle scanning antenna array is presented in this paper. The antenna array contains 8 subarrays in the horizontal dimension, and each subarray contains 4 unit cells. A two-side printed dipole with an amendatory equivalent circuit model is adopted, and the metal vias are introduced in the element design to ameliorate the cross-polarization level. A radome, acting as the wide-angle impedance matching layer, is introduced to achieve wide-angle scanning. A prototype of a 4 × 8 array is fabricated and measured. The results show that the operating bandwidth of aperture efficiency (BWAE) above 60% is about 26.7% from 2.6 GHz to 3.4 GHz. The measured scanning loss in the H-plane is 2.7 dB when scanning up to 60° with active voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) <3, and the gain can achieve 21 dB at 3 GHz with a cross-polarization level below −30 dB at all angles.