A Compact Slotted Patch Hybrid-Mode Antenna for Sub-6 GHz CommunicationRead the full article
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation publishes research on the design, analysis, and applications of antennas, along with studies related to the propagation of electromagnetic waves through space, air, and other media.
Chief Editor, Professor Koziel, engages in research focused on surrogate-based modeling and optimization including space mapping technology for engineering design at Reykjavik University.
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High-Gain SIR Dual-Band Antenna Based on CSRR-Enhanced SIW for 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN
This paper presents a dual-band step impedance resonator (SIR) antenna based on metamaterial-inspired periodic structure of coupled complementary split-ring resonators substrate-integrated waveguide (CSRR-SIW). The antenna supports wireless local area networks (WLAN) bands at 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz. The CSRRs and two branches of the SIR element are etched on the top and bottom metal surfaces of the substrate. The SIR element produces a fundamental frequency f1 at 2.4 GHz and a second harmonic frequency fs2 at 5.7 GHz. Meanwhile, the CSRRs produces a resonant frequency at high-frequency band around 5.2 GHz, which can be combined with the second harmonic frequency fs2 at 5.7 GHz. The high-frequency bandwidth can then be broadened. The simulated and measured results show that the dual operation bands with bandwidths of 16% from 2.25 GHz to 2.64 GHz and 18.2% from 5 GHz to 6 GHz for |S11| < −10 dB are achieved. Meanwhile, the proposed antenna has peak gains ranging from 6.5 dBi to 7 dBi and from 7 dBi to 7.7 dBi in the lower and upper bands, respectively. Compared with many previously reported dual-band antenna designs, the proposed antenna achieves comparable bandwidth performance and larger gain per unit area with a relatively smaller size. Moreover, the simple structure renders the proposed antenna has the advantage of easy-processable and cost-effective implementation.
Design of Broadband Band-Pass Filter with Cross-Coupled Line Structure
This paper presents a broadband band-pass filter with cross-coupled line structure. The cross-coupled line structure is composed of the parallel coupled lines and an open stub. It can be analyzed by the odd- and even-mode method due to its symmetric structure. There are three transmission poles in the passband and two transmission zeros out of passband. Then, the influence of the impedance parameters on the transmission zeros and transmission poles are analyzed. Then, the physical parameters of the proposed band-pass filter are given. And using HFSS for simulation and optimization, the final insertion loss and return loss of filter are obtained. The simulation and measurement results are in good agreement, which validates the design idea.
Multiwideband Bandpass Filter Based on Folded Quad Cross-Stub Stepped Impedance Resonator
A multiwideband bandpass filter (MW-BPF) using a quad cross-stub stepped impedance resonator (QC-SSIR) was simulated, fabricated, and measured. The proposed QC-SSIR is designed on a four-series arrangement of crossed open stub (COS) structures where each open stub is developed with a step impedance resonator (SIR) structure to generate a wide bandwidth. Compared to the COS resonator, the QC-SSIR has a wider fractional bandwidth and good transmission coefficients and is compact. ABCD matrix analysis is used to investigate the filter structure. Furthermore, the MW-BPF is designed on an FR4 microstrip substrate with εr = 4.4, thickness h = 1.6 mm, and tan δ = 0.0265. The results show that the proposed MW-BPF using a QC-SSIR achieves transmission coefficients/fractional bandwidths of −0.60 dB/49.3%, −1.49 dB/18.7%, and −1.93 dB/13.9% at 0.81 GHz, 1.71 GHz, and 2.58 GHz, respectively. Furthermore, to reduce the filter size, a folded QC-SSIR (FQC-SSIR) structure was also proposed. The results show that the proposed MW-BPF using an FQC-SSIR achieves transmission coefficients/fractional bandwidths of −0.57 dB/49.6%, −1.21 dB/17.7%, and −1.76 dB/12.5% at 0.82 GHz, 1.80 GHz, and 2.62 GHz, respectively. The size of the proposed MW-BPF using an FQC-SSIR is reduced by up to 46% compared with the MW-BPF using a QC-SSIR. Finally, the performance of the simulated MW-BPF based on the QC-SSIR and FQC-SSIR was in good agreement with the measurement results.
Antenna Analytical Representation by a Two-Port Network
System analysis is a powerful tool for researching modern wireless systems. This includes breaking such systems into parts that make them up and studying how these parts work together. All these parts can be represented as “black boxes” in the form of two-port or multiport networks with the common system of parameters. Antenna is an integral part of any wireless system, so it should be also represented as a two-port network. In this paper, an analytical model of an arbitrary single antenna in the form of a two-port network, whose electrical and noise parameters are described in terms of scattering matrices, is obtained. The initial data for creating the model are the antenna fundamental parameters, viz., the input reflection coefficient and the radiation efficiency. Applications of this model for antenna analysis operating in the transmitting, receiving, and scattering modes are demonstrated. A numerical example using the antenna scattering matrix for computer simulation of a wireless connection is given.
High Isolation and Ideal Correlation Using Spatial Diversity in a Compact MIMO Antenna for Fifth-Generation Applications
This paper presents a compact Multiple Input Multiple Output antenna with high isolation and low envelope correlation (ECC) for fifth-generation applications using spatial diversity technique. The proposed MIMO antenna consists of two single antennas, each having size of 13 × 12.8 mm2, symmetrically arranged next to each other. The single and MIMO antennas are simulated and analyzed. To verify the simulated results, the prototype antennas were fabricated and measured. A good agreement between measurements and simulations is obtained. The proposed antenna covers the 28 GHz band (27.5–28.35 GHz) allocated by the FCC for 5G applications. Moreover, the isolation is more than 35 dB and the ECC is less than 0.0004 at the operating band, which means that the mutual coupling between the two elements is negligible. The MIMO parameters, such as diversity gain (DG), total active reflection coefficient (TARC), realized gain, and efficiency, are also studied. Thus, the results demonstrate that our antenna is suitable for 5G MIMO applications.
The Efficient Method for Calculating the Physical Optics Scattered Fields from the Concave Surfaces
In this work, the numerical steepest descent path (NSDP) method is proposed to compute the highly oscillatory physical optics (PO) scattered fields from the concave surfaces, including both the monostatic and the bistatic cases. Quadratic variations are adopted to approximate the integrands of the PO type integral into the canonical form. Then, on involving the NSDP method, we deform the integration paths of the integrals into several NSDPs on the complex plain, through which the highly oscillatory integrands are converted to exponentially decay integrands. The RCS results of the PO scattered field are calculated and are compared with the high frequency asymptotic (HFA) method and the brute force (BF) method. The results demonstrate that the proposed NSDP method for calculating PO scattered fields from concave surfaces is frequency-independent and error-controllable. Numerical examples are provided to verify the efficiencies of the NSDP method.