Three Configurations of Compact Planar Multistub Microstrip Antennas for mmW Mobile ApplicationsRead the full article
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation publishes research on the design, analysis, and applications of antennas, along with studies related to the propagation of electromagnetic waves through space, air, and other media.
Chief Editor, Professor Koziel, engages in research focused on surrogate-based modeling and optimization including space mapping technology for engineering design at Reykjavik University.
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A Compact, Bistatic Antenna System with Very High Interport Isolation for 2.4 GHz In-Band Full Duplex Applications
This paper presents a compact, dual polarized bistatic (two closely spaced transmit and receive radiators) patch antenna with excellent interport isolation performance. The presented antenna system employs differential receive mode operation for the cancellation of self-interference (SI) to achieve very high interport isolation for 2.4 GHz in-band full duplex (IBFD) applications. The presented antenna is based on two closely spaced radiators and a simple 3 dB/180° coupler for differentially excited receive mode operation. The 3 dB/180° coupler performs as a passive self-interference cancellation (SIC) circuit for the presented antenna. The small form-factor structure is realized through via interconnections between the receiving patch and SIC circuit. The prototype of the presented antenna characterizes better than 105 dB peak interport isolation. Moreover, the recorded interport isolation is more than 90 dB and 95 dB within 60 MHz and 40 MHz bandwidths, respectively. The measured gain and cross-polarization levels reflect superior radiation performance for the validation model of the proposed antenna. The presented antenna offers DC interport isolation too, which is required for active antenna applications. The novelty of this work is a compact (small form-factor) antenna structure with very high peak interport isolation along with wider SIC bandwidth as compared to previously reported antennas for full duplex applications.
Thinned Virtual Array for Cramer Rao Bound Optimization in MIMO Radar
By transmitting multiple independent waveforms at the transmit side and processing echoes of spatial targets at the receive side, Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar enjoys virtual array aperture expansion and more degree of freedom (DOF), both of which favors the application of direction finding or estimation of direction of arrival (DOA). The expanded virtual aperture provides higher angular resolution which also promotes the precision of DOA estimation, and the extra DOF brought by waveform diversity can be leveraged to focus energy in certain spatial region for better direction-finding capacity. However, beamspace methods which match certain beampatterns suffer from deteriorated performance and complexity in implementation, and the advantage of virtual array aperture is limited by its virtual element redundancy. As an important performance indicator of DOA estimation, Cramer–Rao Bound (CRB) is closely connected to the array configuration of the system. To reduce the complexity of the system and improve CRB performance at the same time, in this paper, the virtual array of MIMO radar is designed directly by selecting outputs from matched filters at the receive side. For the sake of fair comparison, both scenarios with and without priori directions are considered to obtain optimized virtual array configuration, respectively. The original combinatorial problems are approximated by sequential convex approximations methods which produce solutions with efficiency. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method can provide thinned virtual arrays with excellent CRB performance.
Analytical Nonstationary 3D MIMO Channel Model for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication on Slope
Vehicle-to-vehicle communication plays a strong role in modern wireless communication systems, appropriate channel models are of great importance in future research, and propagation environment with slope is one special kind. In this study, a novel three-dimensional nonstationary multiple-input multiple-output channel model for the sub-6 GHz band is proposed. This model is a regular-shaped multicluster geometry-based analytical model, and it combines the line-of-sight component and multicluster scattering rays as the nonline-of-sight components. Each cluster of scatterers represents the influence of different moving vehicles on or near a slope, and scatterers are, respectively, distributed within two spheres around the transmitter and the receiver. In this model, it is considered that the azimuth and elevation angles of departure and arrival are jointly distributed and conform to the von Mises–Fisher distribution, which can easily control the range and concentration of the scatterers within spheres to mimic the real-world situation well. Moreover, the impulse response and the autocorrelation function of the corresponding channel is derived and proposed; then, the Doppler power spectrum density of the channel is simulated and analyzed. In addition, the nonstationary characteristics of the presented channel model are observed through simulations. Finally, the simulation results are compared with measurement data in order to validate the utility of the proposed model.
Lowering the Sidelobe Level of a Two-Way Pattern in Shared Aperture Radar Arrays
A study of lowering the peak SLL of shared aperture radar arrays is presented. A two-weight amplitude distribution for the elements of transmit and receive arrays is used. Imposing certain conditions, the relation of the number of elements of the arrays was found. One condition imposes the appearance of a minor lobe position of transmit or receive array pattern at a certain null of receive or transmit array pattern. A second condition imposes the equal sidelobe level of two consecutive minor lobes either near the main beam of the two-way array pattern or at certain positions of receive or transmit array pattern. The resulting peak SLL of the two-way radar array pattern depending on the conditions reaches from −47 dB up to less than −50 dB.
Development of a Pin Diode-Based Beam-Switching Single-Layer Reflectarray Antenna
This paper presents a practical demonstration for the design and development of a switchable planar reflectarray using PIN diodes in the X-band frequency range. Waveguide scattering parameter measurements for the unit cells and far-field measurements of the periodic reflectarrays have been carried out to verify the predicted results. Reflectarray unit cell measurements demonstrated a frequency tunability of 0.36 GHz with a dynamic phase range of 226°. On the other hand, the designed 6 × 6 periodic reflectarray has been shown to achieve beam switching from +6° to −6° with different switching states of PIN diodes. This type of beam switching can be used in satellite communication for specific region coverage.
Radio Propagation Measurements in the Indoor Stairwell Environment at 3.5 and 28 GHz for 5G Wireless Networks
To cover the high demand for wireless data services for different applications in the wireless networks, different frequency bands below 6 GHz and in millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) above 24 GHz are proposed for the fifth generation (5G) of communication. The communication network is supposed to handle, among others, indoor traffic in normal situations as well as during emergencies. The stairway is one of those areas which has less network traffic during normal conditions but increases significantly during emergencies. This paper presents the radio propagation in an indoor stairway environment based on wideband measurements in the line of sight (LOS) at two candidate frequencies for 5G wireless networks, namely, 3.5 GHz and 28 GHz. The path loss, root mean square (RMS) delay spread, K-factor results, and analysis are provided. The close-in free-space reference distance (CI), floating intercept (FI), and the close-in free-space reference distance with frequency weighting (CIF) path loss models are provided. The channel parameters such as the number of clusters, the ray and cluster arrival rates, and the ray and cluster decay factors are also obtained for both frequencies. The findings of the path loss show that the CI, FI, and CIF models fit the measured data well in both frequencies with the path loss exponent identical to the free-space path loss. Based on clustering results, it is found that the cluster decay rates are identical at both bands. The results from this and previous measurements indicate that at least one access point is required for every two sections of the stairway to support good coverage along the stairwell area in 5G wireless networks. Moreover, for 5G systems utilizing mm-Wave frequency bands, one access point for each stair section might be necessary for increased reliability of the 5G network in stairwell environments.