Table 2: Length, spacing, and performance comparisons. The central frequency is 300 mHz. The radius of elements is 0.003369 λ. Length and spacing are also in terms of wavelength.

GA optimized gain, impedance, and bandwidth [7]PSO optimized for gain, impedance, and bandwidth

ElementLengthSpacingLengthSpacing
1.52.4939
2.47.182.4665.2269
3.42.152.4213.1662
4.41.229.4149.2883
5.39.435.4120.3213
6.39.272.4199.2731
Feedpoint0.0250
Gain (dBi) / 9.3911.2910.2212.12
 (Ω)