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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2011, Article ID 540275, 12 pages
Research Article

Spatial Correlation for DoA Characterization Using Von Mises, Cosine, and Gaussian Distributions

1Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58.429-900 Campina Grande, PB, Brazil
2Escola Politécnica de Pernambuco, Universidade de Pernambuco, 50.750-470 Recife, PE, Brazil

Received 2 May 2011; Accepted 2 July 2011

Academic Editor: Hoi Shun Lui

Copyright © 2011 Wamberto J. L. Queiroz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper presents mathematical expressions for the spatial correlation between elements of linear and circular antenna arrays, considering cosine, Gaussian, and Von Mises distributions, for the direction of arrival (DoA) of the electromagnetic waves at the receiver antenna. The expressions obtained for the Von Mises distribution can include or not the mutual coupling effect between the elements and are simpler than those obtained for the cosine and the Gaussian distributions of the angle of arrival. The Von Mises distribution produces spatial correlation expressions in terms of Bessel and trigonometric functions. An exact expression for the spatial correlation, taking into account the mutual coupling, for the circular and linear arrays and an arbitrary number of elements are presented. It can be verified, by numerical evaluation of the expressions, that the coupling between the elements correlates the electromagnetic field, and a separation of half wavelength could not be enough to decorrelate them.