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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2012, Article ID 108534, 6 pages
Research Article

On the Second-Order Statistics of Correlated Cascaded Rayleigh Fading Channels

Department of Communications Engineering, Yuan Ze University, 135 Yuan-Tung Road, Chung-Li 32003, Taiwan

Received 10 November 2011; Accepted 7 June 2012

Academic Editor: Matteo Pastorino

Copyright © 2012 Yawgeng A. Chau and Karl Y.-T. Huang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The second-order statistics of two correlated cascaded (double) Rayleigh fading channels are analyzed, where different relevant second-order cross-correlation functions of in-phase and quadrature components of the cascaded Rayleigh channels are derived. The level crossing rate (LCR) and average fade duration (AFD) of the cascaded channels are evaluated, and a single-integral form of the LCR is derived. Numerical results of the LCR and AFD are presented, and the effect of the correlation is illustrated.