Research Article

Modeling of GPR Clutter Caused by Soil Heterogeneity

Figure 4

(a) Spatial variation of the relative permittivity of topsoil up to 10 cm depth measured by a time domain reflectometry (TDR) on the first 1 m of the profile with 2 cm spacing and (b) the mean permittivity of the TDR measurements. Volumetric water content is calculated from permittivity by Topp’s equation [18].