Modeling of GPR Clutter Caused by Soil Heterogeneity
(a) Spatial variation of the relative permittivity of topsoil up to 10 cm depth measured by a time domain reflectometry (TDR) on the first 1 m of the profile with 2 cm spacing and (b) the mean permittivity of the TDR measurements. Volumetric water content is calculated from permittivity by Topp’s equation .
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