Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2012, Article ID 735414, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/735414
Research Article

A Comprehensive Forward Model for Imaging under Irregular Terrain Using RF Tomography

1Sensor Systems Division, University of Dayton Research Institute, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433, USA
2Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA), Italian National Research Council (CNR), 80124 Naples, Italy
3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
4School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL, UK

Received 4 March 2012; Revised 26 June 2012; Accepted 17 July 2012

Academic Editor: Weng Cho Chew

Copyright © 2012 Lorenzo Lo Monte et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Lo Monte, D. Erricolo, F. Soldovieri, and M. C. Wicks, “Radio frequency tomography for tunnel detection,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 1128–1137, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  2. L. Lo Monte, F. Soldovieri, D. Erricolo, and M. C. Wicks, “Imaging under irregular terrain using RF tomography,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 3364–3373, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  3. B. Guan, J. F. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, and T. J. Cui, “Electromagnetic scattering from objects above a rough surface using the method of moments with half-space Green's function,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 3399–3405, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  4. R. C. Johnson, Antenna Engineering Handbook, McGraw-Hill, 3rd edition, 1993.
  5. W. C. Chew, Waves and Fields in Inhomogeneous Media, IEEE Press, New York, NY, USA, 1995.
  6. F. Soldovieri, J. Hugenschmidt, R. Persico, and G. Leone, “A linear inverse scattering algorithm for realistic GPR applications,” Near Surface Geophysics, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 29–42, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. T. Tai, Dyadic Green Functions in Electromagnetic Theory, IEEE Press, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2nd edition, 1994.
  8. W. C. Chew, J. M. Jin, E. Michielssen, and J. Song, Fast and Efficient Algorithms in Computational Electromagnetics, Artech House, Boston, Mass, USA, 2001.
  9. T. B. Hansen and P. M. Johansen, “Inversion scheme for ground penetrating radar that takes into account the planar air-soil interface,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 496–506, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. Meincke, “Linear GPR inversion for lossy soil and a planar air-soil interface,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 2713–2721, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. L. Lo Monte, D. Erricolo, F. Soldovieri, and M. C. Wicks, “RF tomography for below-ground imaging of extended areas and close-in sensing,” IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 496–500, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. C. Chew, M. S. Tong, and B. Hu, Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetic and Elastic Waves, Synthesis Lectures on Computational Electromagnetics, Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2009.
  13. T. J. Cui, Y. Quin, Y. Ye, J. Wu, G. Wang, and W. C. Chew, “Efficient low-frequency inversion of 3-D buried objects with large constrasts,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 3–9, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  14. T. J. Cui and W. C. Chew, “Diffraction tomographic algorithm for the detection of three-dimensional objects buried in a lossy half-space,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 42–49, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. S. Zhdanov, Geophysical Electromagnetic Theory and Methods, vol. 43, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherland, 2009.
  16. M. S. Zhdanov, Geophysical Inverse Theory and Regularization Problems, Methods in Geochemistry and Geophysics, vol. 36, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherland, 2002.
  17. Y. Altuncu, A. Yapar, and I. Akduman, “Numerical computation of the green's function of a layered media with rough interfaces,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1204–1209, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. Altuncu, A. Yapar, and I. Akduman, “On the scattering of electromagnetic waves by bodies buried in a half-space with locally rough interface,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1435–1443, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. Lo Monte and J. T. Parker, “Sparse reconstruction methods in RF tomography for underground imaging,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Waveform Diversity and Design Conference (WDD '10), pp. 28–32, Niagara Falls, Canada, August 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Giannopoulos, “GPRMAX Simulator,” http://www.gprmax.org.
  21. A. Beck and M. Teboulle, “A fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm for linear inverse problems,” SIAM Journal on Imaging Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 183–202, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  22. K. A. Michalski and J. R. Mosig, “Multilayered media green's functions in integral equation formulations,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 508–519, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. A. Michalski and D. Zheng, “Electromagnetic scattering and radiation by surfaces of arbitrary shape in layered media—I: theory,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 335–344, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. A. Michalski and D. Zheng, “Electromagnetic scattering and radiation by surfaces of arbitrary shape in layered media—II: implementation and results for contiguous half-spaces,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 345–352, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. L. Chow, J. J. Yang, D. G. Fang, and G. E. Howard, “A closed-form spatial Green's function for the thick microstrip substrate,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 588–592, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. V. Shuley, R. R. Boix, F. Medina, and M. Horno, “On the fast approximation of Green's functions in MPIE formulations for planar layered media,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 2185–2192, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. I. Aksun, “A robust approach for the derivation of closed-form Green's functions,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 44, pp. 3644–3653, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  28. V. N. Kourkoulos and A. C. Cangellaris, “Accurate approximation of green's functions in planar stratified media in terms of a finite sum of spherical and cylindrical waves,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1568–1576, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. J. Cui, W. C. Chew, A. A. Aydiner, and Y. H. Zhang, “Fast-forward solvers for the low-frequency detection of buried dielectric objects,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 2026–2036, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. J. Cui and W. C. Chew, “Fast evaluation of sommerfeld integrals for EM scattering and radiation by three-dimensional buried objects,” Research Report CCEM-34-97, Center of Compuational Electromagnetics, Departmnet of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  31. T. J. Cui and W. C. Chew, “Efficient method for the near-field detection of buried dieletric and conducting objects,” Research Report CCEM-3-98, Center of Computational Electromagnetics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  32. T. J. Cui and W. C. Chew, Fast Algorithm For Electromagnetic Scattering by Buried 3D Dielectric Objects of Large Size, Center of Computational Electromagnetics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1998.
  33. T. J. Cui and W. C. Chew, “Fast evaluation of sommerfeld integrals for em scattering and radiation by three-dimensional buried objects,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 887–900, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. J. Cui, W. C. Chew, A. A. Aydiner, D. L. Wright, D. V. Smith, and J. D. Abraham, “Numerical modeling of an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 17–27, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. Gao and C. Torres-Verdín, “High-order generalized extended born approximation for electromagnetic scattering,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1243–1256, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. D. Yaghjian, “Electric dyadic Green’s functions in the source region,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 248–263, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus