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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 953269, 14 pages
Review Article

A Review of Antennas for Indoor Positioning Systems

1Instituto de Telecomunicações-Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
2Departamento de Eletrónica, Telecomunicações e Informática, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
3Área Departamental de Engenharia Eletrónica, Telecomunicações e Computadores, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emídio Navarro 1, 1959-007 Lisboa, Portugal
4WETI, Politechnika Gdanska, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland

Received 1 August 2012; Revised 2 October 2012; Accepted 15 October 2012

Academic Editor: Michael Yan Wah Chia

Copyright © 2012 Luis Brás et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper provides a review of antennas applied for indoor positioning or localization systems. The desired requirements of those antennas when integrated in anchor nodes (reference nodes) are discussed, according to different localization techniques and their performance. The described antennas will be subdivided into the following sections according to the nature of measurements: received signal strength (RSS), time of flight (ToF), and direction of arrival (DoA). This paper intends to provide a useful guide for antenna designers who are interested in developing suitable antennas for indoor localization systems.