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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 623950, 13 pages
Research Article

Innovative Radiating Systems for Train Localization in Interference Conditions

1Thales Alenia Space Italia, Navigation & Integrated Communication Directorate, Via Saccomuro 24, 00131 Rome, Italy
2NEXT, Ingegneria dei Sistemi, Via Andrea Noale 345/b, 00155 Rome, Italy
3University Roma Tre, Department of Engineering, Via Vito Volterra 62, 00146 Rome, Italy

Received 5 December 2012; Revised 21 February 2013; Accepted 3 June 2013

Academic Editor: Renato Cicchetti

Copyright © 2013 C. Vegni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The design of innovative radiating systems based on the metamaterial technology for GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) applications in radio frequency (RF) interference conditions is proposed. To this aim, firstly two typical adaptive array techniques (i.e., nulling and beam-forming) are discussed and tradeed off. Secondly, FRPA (Fixed Radiation Pattern Antenna) and CRPA (Controlled Radiation Pattern Antenna) phased array configurations of miniaturized patch antennas are studied by means of electromagnetic commercial tools and phased array optimization algorithms. This process leads to the identification of a phased array design. Benefits and drawbacks for GNSS applications are highlighted. Finally, the design of the phased array is applied to a GNSS user receiver in a navigation realistic environment. Simulation results are obtained in a realistic scenario for railway applications, comprising of a GNSS satellite constellation, a GNSS user receiver (i.e., on-board train equipment) running along a track in Western Australia, and a constellation of interfering satellites. Navigation service performances (i.e., user location accuracy and service availability) are computed taking into account the adaptive array radiation pattern in two different modes (i.e., FRPA or CRPA) and band-limited white noise interference.