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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2013, Article ID 897287, 15 pages
Research Article

Three-Dimensional Microwave Holographic Imaging Employing Forward-Scattered Waves Only

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada L8S 4K1
2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada M5S 3G4

Received 24 April 2013; Accepted 8 July 2013

Academic Editor: Francesco Soldovieri

Copyright © 2013 Reza K. Amineh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We propose a three-dimensional microwave holographic imaging method based on the forward-scattered waves only. In the proposed method, one transmitter and multiple receivers perform together a two-dimensional scan on two planar apertures on opposite sides of the inspected domain. The ability to achieve three-dimensional imaging without back-scattered waves enables the imaging of high-loss objects, for example, tissues, where the back-scattered waves may not be available due to low signal-to-noise ratio or nonreciprocal measurement setup. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the proposed method in providing three-dimensional images. Resolution limits are derived and confirmed with simulation examples.