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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 394707, 14 pages
Research Article

High Accuracy 2D-DOA Estimation for Conformal Array Using PARAFAC

1Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China
2Science and Technology on Underwater Test and Control Laboratory, Dalian 116013, China
3Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China

Received 26 October 2013; Revised 14 December 2013; Accepted 16 December 2013; Published 16 January 2014

Academic Editor: Hon Tat Hui

Copyright © 2014 Liangtian Wan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Due to the polarization diversity (PD) of element patterns caused by the varying curvature of the conformal carrier, the conventional direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms could not be applied to the conformal array. In order to describe the PD of conformal array, the polarization parameter is considered in the snapshot data model. The paramount difficulty for DOA estimation is the coupling between the angle information and polarization parameter. Based on the characteristic of the cylindrical conformal array, the decoupling between the polarization parameter and DOA can be realized with a specially designed array structure. 2D-DOA estimation of the cylindrical conformal array is accomplished via parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) theory. To avoid parameter pairing problem, the algorithm forms a PARAFAC model of the covariance matrices in the covariance domain. The proposed algorithm can also be generalized to other conformal array structures and nonuniform noise scenario. Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) is derived and simulation results with the cylindrical conformal array are presented to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.