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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 797590, 9 pages
Research Article

Pulse Splitting for Harmonic Beamforming in Time-Modulated Linear Arrays

1Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science, ELEDIA Research Center, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 5, 38123 Trento, Italy
2School of Engineering, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyomachi, Nagasaki-shi 852-8521, Japan

Received 31 January 2014; Accepted 29 April 2014; Published 17 June 2014

Academic Editor: Shiwen Yang

Copyright © 2014 Lorenzo Poli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A novel strategy for harmonic beamforming in time-modulated linear arrays is proposed. The pulse splitting technique is exploited to simultaneously generate two harmonic patterns, one at the central frequency and another at a preselected harmonic of arbitrary order, while controlling the maximum level of the remaining sideband radiations. An optimization strategy based on the particle swarm optimizer is developed in order to determine the optimal parameters describing the pulse sequence used to modulate the excitation weights of the array elements. Representative numerical results are reported and discussed to point out potentialities and limitations of the proposed approach.