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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 848071, 10 pages
Research Article

Massive MIMO Channel Models: A Survey

1Wireless Signal Processing and Network Lab, Key Laboratory of Universal Wireless Communication, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT), P.O. Box 93, No. 10, Xi Tu Cheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100876, China
2Department of Electronics Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, China

Received 25 January 2014; Accepted 28 March 2014; Published 16 June 2014

Academic Editor: Periklis Chatzimisios

Copyright © 2014 Kan Zheng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The exponential traffic growth of wireless communication networks gives rise to both the insufficient network capacity and excessive carbon emissions. Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) can improve the spectrum efficiency (SE) together with the energy efficiency (EE) and has been regarded as a promising technique for the next generation wireless communication networks. Channel model reflects the propagation characteristics of signals in radio environments and is very essential for evaluating the performances of wireless communication systems. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the state of the art in channel models of massive MIMO. First, the antenna array configurations are presented and classified, which directly affect the channel models and system performance. Then, measurement results are given in order to reflect the main properties of massive MIMO channels. Based on these properties, the channel models of massive MIMO are studied with different antenna array configurations, which can be used for both theoretical analysis and practical evaluation.