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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2015, Article ID 246793, 7 pages
Research Article

Key Considerations in the Modeling of Tropical Maritime Microwave Attenuations

1School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798
2National Metrology Centre, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221

Received 3 December 2014; Accepted 5 March 2015

Academic Editor: Yuan Yao

Copyright © 2015 Yee Hui Lee and Yu Song Meng. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper presents some key considerations for modeling of over-sea radio-wave propagations in 5 GHz band. The summarized information is based on a series of measurement campaigns which were recently carried out in the tropical maritime environments near Singapore. Multiray propagations and ducting of radio waves have been highlighted and considered in over-sea path loss modeling and prediction. It is noted that the sea-surface reflection is an important contribution in the received field, while the duct layers could enhance the radio-wave propagations. Our studies also show that the refracted ray inside evaporation duct could be a strong ray for short-range near sea-surface applications and needs to be properly evaluated.