Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2015, Article ID 504059, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/504059
Research Article

Experimental Assessment of Linear Sampling and Factorization Methods for Microwave Imaging of Concealed Targets

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul, Turkey

Received 2 February 2015; Revised 27 April 2015; Accepted 13 May 2015

Academic Editor: Lorenzo Crocco

Copyright © 2015 M. N. Akıncı et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. C. Fear, P. M. Meaney, and M. A. Stuchly, “Microwaves for breast cancer detection?” IEEE Potentials, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 12–18, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. J. Bond, X. Li, S. C. Hagness, and B. D. van Veen, “Microwave imaging via space-time beamforming for early detection of breast cancer,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1690–1705, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  3. O. Güren, M. Çayören, L. T. Ergene, and I. Akduman, “Surface impedance based microwave imaging method for breast cancer screening: contrast-enhanced scenario,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 59, no. 19, pp. 5725–5739, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. I. Catapano, L. Crocco, M. D'Urso, and T. Isernia, “A novel effective model for solving 3-D nonlinear inverse scattering problems in lossy scenarios,” IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 302–306, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. I. Catapano, L. Crocco, and T. Isernia, “Improved sampling methods for shape reconstruction of 3-D buried targets,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 3265–3273, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Ö. Özdemir and H. Haddar, “Preprocessing the reciprocity gap sampling method in buried-object imaging experiments,” IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 756–760, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. I. Catapano, F. Soldovieri, and L. Crocco, “On the feasibility of the linear sampling method for 3D GPR surveys,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 118, pp. 185–203, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. U. Gürbuz, B. Aslanyürek, E. P. Karabulut, and I. Akduman, “An efficient nonlinear imaging approach for dielectric objects buried under a rough surface,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 3013–3022, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. N. Akıncı and M. Çayören, “Microwave subsurface imaging of buried objects under a rough air-soil interface,” Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 703–712, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. W. C. Chew and Y. M. Wang, “Reconstruction of two-dimensional permittivity distribution using the distorted born iterative method,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 218–225, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Abubakar and P. M. van den Berg, “The contrast source inversion method for location and shape reconstructions,” Inverse Problems, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 495–510, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  12. R. Potthast, “A survey on sampling and probe methods for inverse problems,” Inverse Problems, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. R1–R47, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  13. M. Pastorino, Microwave Imaging, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2010.
  14. F. Cakoni and D. Colton, A Qualitative Approach to Inverse Scattering Theory, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2013.
  15. D. Colton and P. Monk, “A linear sampling method for the detection of leukemia using microwaves,” SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 926–941, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  16. D. Colton and P. Monk, “A linear sampling method for the detection of leukemia using microwaves II,” SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 241–255, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  17. G. Bozza, M. Brignone, and M. Pastorino, “Application of the no-sampling linear sampling method to breast cancer detection,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 2525–2534, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Crocco, I. Catapano, L. di Donato, and T. Isernia, “The linear sampling method as a way to quantitative inverse scattering,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1844–1853, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  19. R. Scapaticci, L. di Donato, I. Catapano, and L. Crocco, “A feasibility study on microwave imaging for brain stroke monitoring,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, vol. 40, pp. 305–324, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. di Donato, M. T. Bevacqua, L. Crocco, and T. Isernia, “Inverse scattering via virtual experiments and contrast source regularization,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 1669–1677, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. L. Di Donato and L. Crocco, “Model-based quantitative cross-borehole gpr imaging via virtual experiments,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 4178–4185, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. F. Cakoni, D. Colton, and P. Monk, The Linear Sampling Method in Inverse Electromagnetic Scattering, vol. 80 of CBMS-NSF Regional Conference Series in Applied Mathematics, SIAM, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  23. A. Kirsch and N. Grinberg, The Factorization Method for Inverse Problems, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2007.
  24. T. P. Montoya, “Land mine detection using a ground-penetrating radar based on resistively loaded Vee dipoles,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1795–1806, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Sato, Y. Hamada, X. Feng, F. Kong, Z. Zeng, and G. Fang, “GPR using an array antenna for landmine detection,” Near Surface Geophysics, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 7–13, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. A. A. Vertiy, S. P. Gavrilov, V. N. Stepanyuk, and I. V. Voynovskyy, “Through-wall and wall microwave tomography imaging,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, vol. 3, pp. 3087–3090, IEEE, June 2004. View at Scopus
  27. I. Catapano and L. Crocco, “A qualitative inverse scattering method for through-the-wall imaging,” IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 685–689, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. W. C. Chew, Waves and Fields in Inhomogeneous Media, vol. 522, IEEE Press, New York, NY, USA, 1995.
  29. D. Colton, H. Haddar, and M. Piana, “The linear sampling method in inverse electromagnetic scattering theory,” Inverse Problems, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. S105–S137, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  30. I. Catapano, L. Crocco, and T. Isernia, “On simple methods for shape reconstruction of unknown scatterers,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1431–1436, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. N. Akinci, T. Caglayan, S. Ozgur et al., “Qualitative microwave imaging with scattering parameters measurements,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. In press.
  32. I. Catapano, L. Crocco, M. D' Urso, and T. Isernia, “3D microwave imaging via preliminary support reconstruction: testing on the Fresnel 2008 database,” Inverse Problems, vol. 25, no. 2, Article ID 024002, 23 pages, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  33. A. Kirsch, “Factorization of the far-field operator for the inhomogeneous medium case and an application in inverse scattering theory,” Inverse Problems, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 413–429, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  34. A. Kirsch, “The factorization method for Maxwell's equations,” Inverse Problems, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. S117–S134, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Lechleiter, “A regularization technique for the factorization method,” Inverse Problems, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1605–1625, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  36. F. S. Bazán, J. B. Francisco, K. H. Leem, and G. Pelekanos, “A maximum product criterion as a Tikhonov parameter choice rule for Kirsch's factorization method,” Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, vol. 236, no. 17, pp. 4264–4275, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  37. E. Gazit, “Improved design of the vivaldi antenna,” IEE Proceedings H: Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 89–92, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Chiappe and G. L. Gragnani, “Vivaldi antennas for microwave imaging: theoretical analysis and design considerations,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1885–1891, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. Zhou, H. Li, X. Y. Zou, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband and high-gain planar vivaldi antennas based on inhomogeneous anisotropic zero-index metamaterials,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 120, pp. 235–247, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Çayören, M. Abbak, and İ. Akduman, “Microwave breast phantom measurements with a cavity-backed Vivaldi antenna,” IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, vol. 8, no. 13, pp. 1127–1133, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. O. M. Bucci and T. Isernia, “Electromagnetic inverse scattering: retrievable information and measurement strategies,” Radio Science, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 2123–2137, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J.-M. Geffrin, C. Eyraud, A. Litman, and P. Sabouroux, “Optimization of a bistatic microwave scattering measurement setup: from high to low scattering targets,” Radio Science, vol. 44, no. 2, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, vol. 20, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1989.
  44. B. B. Guzina, F. Cakoni, and C. Bellis, “On the multi-frequency obstacle reconstruction via the linear sampling method,” Inverse Problems, vol. 26, no. 12, Article ID 125005, 29 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  45. H. Gan and W. C. Chew, “A discrete BCG-FFT algorithm for solving 3D inhomogeneous scatterer problems,” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1339–1357, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. N. Wagner, K. Emmerich, F. Bonitz, and K. Kupfer, “Experimental investigations on the frequency- and temperature-dependent dielectric material properties of soil,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 2518–2530, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. P. P. Bobrov, A. V. Repin, and O. V. Rodionova, “Wideband frequency domain method of soil dielectric property measurements,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 2366–2372, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. W. J. Ellison, K. Lamkaouchi, and J.-M. Moreau, “Water: a dielectric reference,” Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 68, no. 2-3, pp. 171–279, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. Aslanyurek, H. Sahinturk, and M. Cayoren, “Microwave imaging of a slightly varying 2-D conducting object through generalized impedance boundary conditions,” IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1851–1855, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. D. Colton, P. Monk, and F. Cakoni, “Applications of electromagnetic waves to problems in nondestructive testing and target identification,” DTIC Document, Technical Report, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  51. M. Pastorino, A. Randazzo, A. Fedeli et al., “A microwave tomographic system for wood characterization in the forest products industry,” Wood Material Science & Engineering, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 75–85, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus