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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 651438, 9 pages
Research Article

NLOS Path Loss Model for Low-Height Antenna Links in High-Rise Urban Street Grid Environments

Wireless Research Department, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-350, Republic of Korea

Received 12 October 2014; Revised 21 January 2015; Accepted 28 January 2015

Academic Editor: Alexei Ashikhmin

Copyright © 2015 Juyul Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper presents a NLOS (non-line-of-sight) path loss model for low-height antenna links in rectangular street grids to account for typical D2D (device-to-device) communication link situations in high-rise urban outdoor environments. From wideband propagation channel measurements collected in Seoul City at 3.7 GHz, we observed distinctive power delay profile behaviors between 1-Turn and 2-Turn NLOS links: the 2-Turn NLOS has a wider delay spread. This can be explained by employing the idea that the 2-Turn NLOS has multiple propagation paths along the various street roads from TX to RX, whereas the 1-Turn NLOS has a single dominant propagation path from TX to RX. Considering this, we develop a path loss model encompassing 1-Turn and 2-Turn NLOS links with separate scattering and diffraction parameters for the first and the second corners, based on the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction. In addition, we consider the effect of building heights on path loss by incorporating an adjustable “waveguide effect” parameter; that is, higher building alleys provide better propagation environments. When compared with field measurements, the predictions are in agreement.