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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2015, Article ID 708163, 12 pages
Research Article

Efficiency Improvements of Antenna Optimization Using Orthogonal Fractional Experiments

Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, 1 Sec. 3, Zhongxiao E. Road, Taipei 10608, Taiwan

Received 22 June 2015; Revised 24 August 2015; Accepted 2 September 2015

Academic Editor: Toni Björninen

Copyright © 2015 Yen-Sheng Chen and Ting-Yu Ku. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper presents an extremely efficient method for antenna design and optimization. Traditionally, antenna optimization relies on nature-inspired heuristic algorithms, which are time-consuming due to their blind-search nature. In contrast, design of experiments (DOE) uses a completely different framework from heuristic algorithms, reducing the design cycle by formulating the surrogates of a design problem. However, the number of required simulations grows exponentially if a full factorial design is used. In this paper, a much more efficient technique is presented to achieve substantial time savings. By using orthogonal fractional experiments, only a small subset of the full factorial design is required, yet the resultant response surface models are still effective. The capability of orthogonal fractional experiments is demonstrated through three examples, including two tag antennas for radio-frequency identification (RFID) applications and one internal antenna for long-term-evolution (LTE) handheld devices. In these examples, orthogonal fractional experiments greatly improve the efficiency of DOE, thereby facilitating the antenna design with less simulation runs.