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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2016, Article ID 1897283, 8 pages
Research Article

Study on Millimeter-Wave Vivaldi Rectenna and Arrays with High Conversion Efficiency

1School of Communications and Information Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072, China
2Key Laboratory of Specialty Fiber Optics and Optical Access Networks, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072, China
3Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Jiangxi 341000, China

Received 11 May 2016; Accepted 26 October 2016

Academic Editor: Herve Aubert

Copyright © 2016 Guan-Nan Tan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A novel Vivaldi rectenna operated at 35 GHz with high millimeter wave to direct current (MMW-to-DC) conversion efficiency is presented and the arrays are investigated. The measured conversion efficiency is 51.6% at 35 GHz and the efficiency higher than 30% is from 33.2 GHz to 36.6 GHz when the input MMW power is 79.4 mW. The receiving Vivaldi antenna loaded with metamaterial units has a high gain of 10.4 dBi at 35 GHz. A SIW- (substrate integrated waveguide-) to-microstrip transition is designed not only to integrate the antenna with the rectifying circuit directly but also to provide the DC bypass for the rectifying circuit. When the power density is 8.7 mW/cm2, the received MMW power of the antenna is 5.6 mW, and the maximum conversion efficiency of the rectenna element is 31.5%. The output DC voltage of the element is nearly the same as that of the parallel array and is about half of the series array. The DC power obtained by the 1 × 2 rectenna arrays is about two times as much as that of the element. The conversion efficiencies of the arrays are very close to that of the element. Large scale arrays could be expended for collecting more DC power.