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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2016, Article ID 2154763, 17 pages
Research Article

Assessment of Measurement Distortions in GNSS Antenna Array Space-Time Processing

PLAN Group, Department of Geomatics Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N1N4, Canada

Received 15 November 2015; Revised 12 January 2016; Accepted 20 January 2016

Academic Editor: Lei Yu

Copyright © 2016 Thyagaraja Marathe et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Antenna array processing techniques are studied in GNSS as effective tools to mitigate interference in spatial and spatiotemporal domains. However, without specific considerations, the array processing results in biases and distortions in the cross-ambiguity function (CAF) of the ranging codes. In space-time processing (STP) the CAF misshaping can happen due to the combined effect of space-time processing and the unintentional signal attenuation by filtering. This paper focuses on characterizing these degradations for different controlled signal scenarios and for live data from an antenna array. The antenna array simulation method introduced in this paper enables one to perform accurate analyses in the field of STP. The effects of relative placement of the interference source with respect to the desired signal direction are shown using overall measurement errors and profile of the signal strength. Analyses of contributions from each source of distortion are conducted individually and collectively. Effects of distortions on GNSS pseudorange errors and position errors are compared for blind, semi-distortionless, and distortionless beamforming methods. The results from characterization can be useful for designing low distortion filters that are especially important for high accuracy GNSS applications in challenging environments.