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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2016, Article ID 2906149, 18 pages
Research Article

Design and Development of a New Electrically Small 3D UHF Spherical Antenna with 360° of Opening Angle in the Whole Space for RFID, WSN, and RSN Applications

Laboratory of Transmission and Processing Information Eq. EMC/Telecom, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdullah University, High School of Technology, Road IMOUZZER, 2427 Fez, Morocco

Received 16 August 2016; Revised 24 October 2016; Accepted 25 October 2016

Academic Editor: Sotirios K. Goudos

Copyright © 2016 Abdelhamid Bou-El-Harmel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Several antenna designs have been made in order to obtain a novel electrically small 3D UHF spherical antenna (ka = 0.1916), which has a resonance frequency close to 915 MHz, produces a quasi-isotropic radiation with an opening angle equal to 360° in the whole space, and is used for RFID, WSN, and RSN applications. These antennas are based on different shapes and are wrapped on the Styrofoam sphere surface of dielectric constant close to air (). A T-match configuration is used to adapt the input impedance of antennas to a value of 50 Ω. The antennas form allows for placing the sensor electronics in its interior, to reconfigure it for numerous values of impedances and to operate it in other ISM bands by adjusting their geometric parameters.