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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 7165143, 17 pages
Review Article

Fractal Reflectarray Antennas: State of Art and New Opportunities

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Modellistica, Elettronica e Sistemistica, Università della Calabria, 87036 Rende, Italy

Received 22 July 2016; Accepted 4 September 2016

Academic Editor: Renato Cicchetti

Copyright © 2016 S. Costanzo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Fractal geometries are appealing in all applications where miniaturization capabilities are required, ranging from antennas to frequency selective surfaces (FSS) design. Recently, some fractal patches configurations, giving low losses, reduced size, and quite good phase ranges, have been proposed for the design of reflectarray unit cells. This paper reviews existing fractal-based reflectarrays, highlighting their benefits and limitations. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of an innovative reflectarray unit cell, using a fractal-shaped fixed-size patch, is presented. The miniaturization capabilities of the Minkowski fractal shape are fully exploited to obtain a compact cell offering quite good phase agility, by leaving unchanged the patch size and acting only on the fractal scaling factor. Experimental validations are fully discussed on a realized 10 GHz cell. This is subsequently adopted to synthesize various reflectarray prototypes offering single or multiple-beam capabilities over a quite large angular region (up to 50 degrees). Finally, experimental validations on a realized elements prototype are presented to demonstrate the wide angle beam-pointing capabilities as well as a quite large bandwidth of about 6%.