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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2016, Article ID 7939671, 9 pages
Research Article

Connectivity Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Device-to-Device Networks with Blockage

1The Department of Information and Telecommunication Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, Republic of Korea
2The Department of Electrical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Hankyong National University, Anseong 456-749, Republic of Korea

Received 3 August 2016; Revised 8 October 2016; Accepted 17 October 2016

Academic Editor: Mohammad Abdul Matin

Copyright © 2016 Haejoon Jung and In-Ho Lee. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We consider device-to-device (D2D) communications in millimeter-wave (mm Wave) for the future fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. While the mm Wave systems can support multiple D2D pairs simultaneously through beamforming with highly directional antenna arrays, the mm Wave channel is significantly more susceptible to blockage compared to microwave; mm Wave channel studies indicate that if line-of-sight (LoS) paths are blocked, reliable mm Wave communications may not be achieved for high data-rate applications. Therefore, assuming that an outage occurs in the absence of the LoS path between two wireless devices by obstructions, we focus on connectivity of the mm Wave D2D networks. We consider two types of D2D communications: direct and indirect schemes. The connectivity performances of the two schemes are investigated in terms of (i) the probability to achieve a fully connected network and (ii) the average number of reliably connected devices . Through analysis and simulation, we show that, as the network size increases, and decrease. Also, and decrease, when the blockage parameter increases. Moreover, simulation results indicate that the hybrid direct and indirect scheme can improve both and up to about 35% compared to the nonhybrid scheme.