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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8523143, 16 pages
Research Article

Radar Coincidence Imaging for Off-Grid Target Using Frequency-Hopping Waveforms

School of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China

Received 8 November 2015; Accepted 14 March 2016

Academic Editor: Wen-Qin Wang

Copyright © 2016 Xiaoli Zhou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Radar coincidence imaging (RCI) is a high-resolution staring imaging technique without the limitation of the target relative motion. To achieve better imaging performance, sparse reconstruction is commonly used. While its performance is based on the assumption that the scatterers are located at the prediscretized grid-cell centers, otherwise, off-grid emerges and the performance of RCI degrades significantly. In this paper, RCI using frequency-hopping (FH) waveforms is considered. The off-grid effects are analyzed, and the corresponding constrained Cramér-Rao bound (CCRB) is derived based on the mean square error (MSE) of the “oracle” estimator. For off-grid RCI, the process is composed of two stages: grid matching and off-grid error (OGE) calibration, where two-dimension (2D) band-excluded locally optimized orthogonal matching pursuit (BLOOMP) and alternating iteration minimization (AIM) algorithms are proposed, respectively. Unlike traditional sparse recovery methods, BLOOMP realizes the recovery in the refinement grids by overwhelming the shortages of coherent dictionary and is robust to noise and OGE. AIM calibration algorithm adaptively adjusts the OGE and, meanwhile, seeks the optimal target reconstruction result.